Wednesday, June 2, 2021

British Intelligence MI6 Agent/Spy Oswald Rayner: the Man Who Murdered Nicholas II and The Russian Royal Family and led to the Communist Revolution

 



Russia's Grand Duchesses Olga and Tatiana studying with their tutor Monsieur Gilliard on the roof of the Romanov Vacation Palace in the Crimea, Livadia Palace. Later Grand Duchesses Maria and Anastasia would enjoy the cool summer breezes from the Black Sea. 






The kids acting in a play for their families and friends.



The Russian Grand Duchesses and their Mom about to take a launch back to the Winter Palace from the Petrovskaya Embankment  along the Neva River. The domed building in the background is the Palace of Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaiovich, Nicholas II's Uncle, who led Russian Forces in WWI.  




 


While Emperor Nicholas II was of average height, his 6'4" Uncle Nikolai Nikolaiovich towered over almost all of his subordinates. 


The Romanov Winter Palace March 1917, soldiers standing guard. 


The Coronation of Czar Nicholas II



Nicholas II declaring War on Germany, he begged the German Kaiser not to mobilize his troops, Wilhelm II refused, lighting the fuse to World War. Alamy/Smithsonian


Nicholas II Emperor of Russia declaring war on Germany


The Winter Palace Plaza today, the scene of Nicholas II declaration and the Bolsheviks storming the Palace, after Germany allowed passage of Lenin in a sealed train through Germany to St. Petersburg lighting the fuse to the Russian October Bolshevik Revolution. By the way, the palace was painted dark red at the time. The St. Petersburg/Petrograd Czarist Train Station to which Lenin arrived, helping Germany and lighting the spark to the October Boshevik Revolution.  Lenin would repay Germany by sending infiltrators to join the Germany army and sabotage the German War effort and morale to bring the collapse of the Kaiser. 




The Russian Winter Palace after Lenin's Bolsheviks stormed the palace and overthrew the Kerensky government.










The St. Petersburg Russia Train Station at which a German Train arrived from Switzerland and from which only one passenger, Communist Revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, deboarded. 



The German Kaiser in exile in the Netherlands after WWI, finally paying for putting Lenin on that German Train and allowing him passage from Switzerland to St. Petersburg/Petrograd Russia

Lenin arrived at the station April 16, 1917, immediately after Kerensky's March Revolution and Czar's abdication, thanks to Kaiser Wilhelm II and Germany, which had slaughtered 2,500,000 Russian Soldiers by January 1917. 

Ropsha Palace 20 miles from St. Petersburg and Tsarskoe Selo and after the Nazis demolished and planted land mines around the Romanov Palace, recently the Russian government has begun renovating the building.




The last letter written by 14-year-old Alexei Romanov, found in the strewn papers and luggage of the Romanov family at Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg.


Dear Kolya,  

All my sisters send greetings to you, your Mama and Grandma. I feel well myself. My head was aching all day, but now the pain is gone completely. I embrace you warmly. Greetings to the Botkins from all of us.  

Always yours,  
Alexei    

Konetz 

Konetz means “The END” in Russian


There was a sweetness to the Romanov children who were never spoiled, while Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia and Alexei's rooms may have seemed wonderlands, demands on their time were far more extensive than you might realize. They were expected to help out at charity bazaars for the sick and poor and religious ceremonies, spending hours on their feet, talking to average Russians, without break or complaint. 


The Girls and Alexandra at a charity event at Yalta on the Black Sea. 





In captivity, the Grand Duchesses would play and hug poor kids they ran across, showing their true nature. 



Queen Alexandra raised her children according to her own strict upbringing, which meant handing down clothes from daughter to daughter, from his Dad to Alexei, making them sleep on simple iron beds, and forcing them to take daily cold baths. Not that they weren't normal kids and occasionally mischievous, 
Alexei was known at formal dinners to scuttle under formal dinner tables, if someone had taken off a shoe, he would move the shoe far down the table to someone else's chair until Dad told him to put it back and cut it out. Few people know that Nicholas II chartered the Boy Scouts in Russia and that Alexei was one of the first Russian Boy Scouts. Alexei went in 1916 to serve with his Dad at Stavka, Russian Military HQ.  Alexei would insist on eating soldier rations at dinners for visiting dignitaries and foreign Allied Commanders/Politicians, always politely saying when served elegant food: this is “not what our soldiers eat,” asking for a soldier's ration instead. Alexei had the rank of Lance Corporal and took his service and rank seriously. Nicholas said he was never prouder of his son.  Everyone at Stavka liked Alexei because of his seriousness, modesty and gentle nature, plus always avoiding special treatment at HQ. 






Russian Boy Scouts 1915, Alexei is among them somewhere, purportedly.


The older children Olga and Tatiana were very serious children and young adults. Though Olga, the oldest, was very friendly and loved being around children, in captivity, she would seek poor children out, spending every second she could talking to them and hugging and mothering them; second daughter, Tatiana, was the most like her shy mother, Alexandra. Intellectual and always acting like a Grand Duchess, she was always in command and never relaxed in public. Once her sisters teased her in private by calling her by her title the Grand Duchess Tatiana, she blew up and immediately put a stop to it. She kicked her sister under the table and exclaimed “Are you crazy to speak to me like that?”  Her family nickname was "The Governess." When the other kids wanted something they would send Tatiana to ask their parents, who could hardly ever say no to her.  
Nicholas was concerned that his daughter Maria was too gentle, sweet and perfect. He was actually glad to know the rare occasions when she got in trouble and once remarked, “I was always afraid of the wings growing. I am glad to see she is only a human child.” Her sisters felt it was their job to keep her grounded, giving her a nickname which tested her good nature. They often called her their “fat little bow-wow” because the plump little girl was so eager to please. The teasing would stop once mom or dad heard about it and told them to cut it out. But they never teased her so much as to hurt her feelings, just to keep her feet on the ground. 
When Prince Philip's Uncle, Louis Mountbatten, visited Russia in 1913, he fell madly in love with Maria. He told family members he wanted to marry her after WWI. When he learned of her murder by the Bolsheviks, he would keep this photo of her in his bedroom the rest of his life. Queen Elizabeth's husband Prince Philip attended his sister's funeral in Hesse during Hitler's Third Reich. Hesse was the home of Alexandra's family.



Anastasia was always goofing off, telling jokes and trying to make everyone laugh, very often succeeding. A tomboy and Daddy's girl, she wasn't as good a student as her older sisters, even resorting to an attempted bribe to get a better grade from her teacher. Dad found out and laughed, telling her good try,  Anastasia’s family nickname was “The Imp,” for all practical jokes. Anastasia seemed drawn to Rasputin, always referring to him as "her only true friend." Some of her cousins said her pranks would drive them up the wall and they tried to avoid her, unless there were adults present. 
When WWI began, the girls all took nursing training and began working at hospitals for sick and wounded soldiers. They never complained and almost every day came home covered in blood from their long hours in surgery, changing dressings or emptying bedpans. Too young at the start of the war, Maria and Anastasia would write letters for them, bring food and refreshments for the wounded soldiers to eat. By 1916, they all worked 10 to 12 hours in the wards every day. 




The Czarina and her daughters. Olga and Tatiana, in their nurse uniforms. The first nurses were Catholic Nuns in the Dark Ages of the 6th and 7th Century, all medical and hospice care was free. 

History records that all the patients the Grand Duchesses treated adored them. The younger children would talk to every soldier in the ward, cheering them up and listening to anything they had to say and helping them write letters to their families. Prison under Kerensky and the Bolsheviks put an end to that. 
In the 1897 Russian Census, Nicholas II listed his occupation as "Owner of Russia." No man had fallen further than he and his family had.




Dr. Botkin was the Romanov family doctor, his children were close friends of the Czar's children. 


Alexei and Kolya Deverenko helping Anastasia climb a snow mountain at Tobolsk, Siberia, building it gave everyone something to do. Climbing and falling off it was fun for all the kids, the Czar said how much he enjoyed hearing his children's laughter again, even thought they were all prisoners under guard. 

On March 4, 1918, from Nicholas II's diary:

"Spent the whole day like yesterday. In the afternoon I made a wooden dagger with my knife for Alexei and Kolya. Kolya, Dr. Deverenko's son, then conquered the snow mountain." The family of Nicholas II made snow mountains at Tsarskoe Selo's Alexander Palace and the park which surrounded it. They would continue the tradition at Tobolsk.  "Later we attacked each other. In the evening the soldiers destroyed the ice mountain, so we can't slide. We were told so by the commandant. They felt it allowed us to see outside the palisades." Windows, under the Bolshevik were white washed, so no one could see out.







They had built much smaller snow mountains at Tsarskoe Selo, but back then their time was not their own because they had royal responsibilities. At Tobolsk and Yekaterinburg, all they had was time.



Kolya Deverenko in military uniform with Alexei, later in old age, a Russian Interview from the early 1990's.





I was a little boy, just 12 years old...I didn't know anything about people's evil.....We lived in Popov house, very close to Ipatiev house. In the middle of summer 1918, I was afraid, and I was pre-occupied worrying about Aleksei. I wanted to see him. And, I am sure, he wanted to see me. Until that sad 17th July 1918. My father, Gilliard, Gibbes and other...they knew everything, but I knew NOTHING.... Isensed something terrible was going to happen, but I didn't know what... In the last week of July 1918, I, my father, Gilliard, Gibbes, etc. entered at Ipatiev House. Terrible scene... House was in complete chaos. Diaries, letters, albums, and others items was all around in house. "But where is Leskela?" I asked my father, but he didn't answer me. Leskela's diary...was taken by one guard, I think his name was Nemetkin, I don't know. But Leonid Sednev....I saw him. He broke down and was crying. His cried so loud, so loud!!!!!
"Papa, where is my Leskela (Alexei)?" I cried.
'They killed him'-he cried
'Ho...how?'
"They killed Tsar, Tsarina, and Grand Duchesses also. All are dead." My father told me.
"I don't understand, where...where are their bones?"
'We don't know, maybe we'll never discover them'
My world was destroyed. They destroyed Russia, no more illusions...I found Leskela's last letter written to me. Especially one sentence in that letter-'I hug you warmly'-made me cry..I thought 'And I hug you warmly, too, my dear friend, and my tsar...'
I was in shock. In later years, I think just about him. 'Why did they killed you? In the USSR there wasn't a space for my Leskela...... We'll be forever friends, my dear Tsesarevich....I want to see you just ONE more time, and I can die in peace... Kolya Deverenko

From a Russian website, reposted on the Alexander Palace Forum:

World War One was not the "GREAT WAR," World War One was the STUPID WAR. 

Nicholas wrote to one of his government ministers in October 1906, “A few days ago I received a peasant from the Tobolsk district, Grigori Rasputin, who brought me an icon of St. Simon Verkhoturie. He made a remarkably strong impression both on Her Majesty and on myself, so that instead of five minutes our conversation went on for more than an hour.”

Rasputin, the Mad Monk, was smart, a sexual predator, a seducer of women, a mystic and the only person in Russia giving Czar Nicholas II the right advice in 1916. Rasputin was trying to convince the Czar to open peace negotiations between Germany and Russia's allies.  History tells us that Rasputin was murdered at the age of 47 on December 30, 1916 by Prince Yusupov, the richest man in Russia. Yusupov was a lazy, spoiled, self-indulgent dilettante. Yusupov was also a relative of the Romanovs, who was trying to keep Russia in WWI, regardless of the cost.  Later it would come out, he was almost continually lobbied into this position by his friend and fellow Oxford student, Englishman Oswald Rayner. Rayner was in St. Petersburg/Petrograd during the war.  A letter between two known British Spies/MI6 Agents Stephen Alley and John Scale has recently come to light:

Dear Scale, ... Although matters here have not proceeded entirely to plan, our objective has clearly been achieved. Reaction to the demise of "Dark Forces" has been well received, although a few awkward questions have already been asked about wider involvement. Rayner is attending to loose ends and will no doubt brief you on your return. 

DARK FORCES WAS THE NAME MI6 ASSIGNED RASPUTIN. British Ambassador George Buchanan wrote to the government in London about Rasputin's supposedly "spontaneous" assassination days before it occurred. 





Yusupov as a child and shortly before he went to college at Oxford where he met Oswald Rayner. Rayner would later name his son John FELIX Rayner after the Prince. 
From 1909 to 1912, Felix attended University College at Oxford, studying Forestry and English. While at Oxford he founded the Oxford Russian Club. Felix lived extravagantly. Prince Yusupov was a member of Oxford’s Bullingdon Club — which was basically a dining club for rich, spoiled boys. They gained a well earned reputation for arrogance and bullying. Later Tory Prime Ministers David Cameron and Boris Johnson would be members of Bullingdon.  

Yusupov employed a full staff at his residence, including a chef, a valet, a housekeeper, as well as housing numerous pets including a bulldog, three horses, a bear cub, and a macaw. According to the University College Oxford website, he spent more money while attending the school than almost any other student. He spent most of his free time partying with friends like Oswald Rayner. Yusupov and Rayner moved into Yusupov's English home together at 14 King Edward Street. 

King Edward Street, Oxford England

A question arises, was Oswald Rayner a plant at Oxford, working for MI6,  assigned to befriend Prince Yusupov by the head of the British Secret Service Sir Mansfield Smith-Cumming?  The best answer is probably.


The night Rasputin came to a party at the Yusupov Palace which had just finished a huge expansion and remodeling. The get together was supposedly a house warming party. Guests at that party, according to every history for the last 100 years:

Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich Romanov
Prince Felix Yusupov
Gregori Rasputin 
Vladimir Purishkevich, the leader of the Monarchists in the Duma 
Dr. Stanislaus de Lazovert 
Lieutenant Sergei Mikhailovich Sukhotin 

Missing from the list was Oswald Rayner, who was also there that night.  This was obviously not an oversight, this was a purposeful cover-up. The gun which shot Rasputin, a Webley 455, was standard issue to MI6 Agents at that time. Yusupov's chauffeur would later report driving Yusupov and British Agents Rayner, John Scale and Stephen Alley around St. Petersburg. He witnessed them engage in energetic conversations in ENGLISH in the days immediately before Rasputin's Assassination. 

Known British Secret Service Agent John Scale recorded: "German intrigue was becoming more intense daily. Enemy agents were busy whispering of peace and hinting how to get it by creating disorder, rioting, etc. Things looked very black. Romania was collapsing, and Russia herself seemed weakening. The failure in communications, the shortness of foods, the sinister influence which seemed to be clogging the war machine, Rasputin the drunken debaucher influencing Russia's policy, what was to the be the end of it all?" Michael Smith, the author of Six: A History of Britain's Secret Intelligence Service (2010) has argued: "The key link between the British secret service bureau in Petrograd and the Russians plotting Rasputin's demise was Rayner through his relationship with Prince Yusupov, the leader of the Russian plotters." https://spartacus-educational.com/SSrayner.htm

The British Secret Service operated out of the American Owned Hotel Astoria, which had been completed in 1912 and was also the place Yusupov and Rasputin brought many of their lovers. Yusupov brought boys and girls, while Rasputin loved romancing the elite women of the nobility and rich. Rasputin knew Rayner and probably met other British Spies at the hotel in the course of his socializing, all of whom were plotting his murder since early in the war. After Rasputin's Assassination and the end of WWI, Rayner would return to Russia as part of a British Trade Mission lasting through the early 1920's. He was probably a full time British MI6 spy at that point.



By the time of Lenin's Communist October 1917 Revolution, 2,254,369 Russian soldiers had been killed in action. Rasputin begged the Czar to seek peace negotiations. Well, history is full of lies, the following is one of the great lies: Yusupov the assassin: Yusupov was bullied and pressured to kill Rasputin by Oswald Rayner, an Englishman, who turned out to be the top British MI6 Agent, English #1 Spy in Russia. His mission, keep Russia in the war against Germany whatever the cost-----to Russia.    




World War One

Most people don't know that immediately after the assassination of Grand Duke Franz Ferdinand June 28, 1914, Nicholas II sent several messages to his cousin, German Kaiser Wilhelm, trying to stop the march to war. If Germany mobilized its 2,000,000 man army, Russia would have to mobilize her massive army. Once that happened anything could set off a war. His pleas fell on deaf ears and the cataclysm began. 
Just as the Czar's advisers thought the Russo-Japanese War would be a great thing, uniting all Russians against a common enemy, they were wrong, the Kaiser's advisers thought war would be great for Germany. These same advisers convinced German Kaiser Wilhelm II that sneaking Vladimir Lenin from Switzerland, through Germany in a sealed train car, to Russia could only pay dividends, wrong again. 


Austria's Grand Duke and Heir Apparent Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, seconds before they entered their car for the trip back to the train station. Assassin Gavrilo Princip lay in wait, moments later World War One would begin. Hapsburg Archduke Franz Ferdinand was a liberal and favored reform and some sort of devolution, which would have given Bosnians and Serbs a degree of self-government within the Empire, a first step towards their longtime goal. Serbian Military Intelligence chief Dragutin Dimitrijević, codename "Apis," wanted power for himself and he wanted it now, he planned the massacre of the Serbian Royal Family in 1903 and hired Princip to kill the Austrian Royal Family in 1914 to reach that goal. Serbia shared in the spoils of war by being a member of the Allies at the Versailles Peace Conference. But the one good thing murderous Serbian assassin Gavrillo Princip died from tuberculosis, which had already caused the amputation of his right arm, on April 28, 1918 after 4 years in prison. The Hapsburg Austrians gave him 20 years in prison for murdering Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. When you are thinking of bloodthirsty, the Serbs win hands down. Serbians still revere Prinicip and his sponsor/mentor Dragutin Dimitrijevic and their Serbian Black Hand Terrorist organization, but former Yugoslavs: Croatians, Bosnians, Montenegran and Macedonians consider them terrorists and murderers.



Princip's gun that brought on the Apocalypse of WWI


Nicholas II Emperor of Russia was the only Man trying to Stop World War One

Tsar to Kaiser, July 29, 1:00 A.M.

Peter's Court Palais, 29 July 1914

Sa Majesté l'Empereur
Neues Palais

Am glad you are back. In this serious moment, I appeal to you to help me. An ignoble war has been declared to a weak country. The indignation in Russia shared fully by me is enormous. Willy, foresee that very soon I shall be overwhelmed by the pressure forced upon me and be forced to take extreme measures which will lead to war. To try and avoid such a calamity as a European War I beg you in the name of our old friendship to do what you can to stop your allies from going too far. Nicky July 29, 1914 at 1:00 AM

Kaiser to Tsar, July 29, 6:30 P.M.

Berlin, 29. July 1914

I received your telegram and share your wish that peace should be maintained. But as I told you in my first telegram, I cannot consider Austria's action against Serbia an "ignoble" war. Austria knows by experience that Serbian promises on paper are wholly unreliable. I understand its action must be judged as trending to get full guarantee that the Serbian promises shall become real facts. This my reasoning is borne out by the statement of the Austrian cabinet that Austria does not want to make any territorial conquests at the expense of Serbia. I therefore suggest that it would be quite possible for Russia to remain a spectator of the Austro-Serbian conflict without involving Europe in the most horrible war she ever witnessed. I think a direct understanding between your Government and Vienna possible and desirable, and as I already telegraphed to you, my Government is continuing its exercises to promote it. Of course military measures on the part of Russia would be looked upon by Austria as a calamity we both wish to avoid and jeopardize my position as mediator which I readily accepted on your appeal to my friendship and my help. Willy July 29, 1914 at 6:30 PM

Thanks for your telegram, conciliatory and friendly. Whereas official message presented today by your ambassador to my minister was conveyed in a very different tone. Beg you to explain this divergency! It would be right to give over the Austro-Serbian problem to the Hague Conference. Trust in your wisdom and friendship. Your loving Nicky on July 29, 1914 at 8:20 PM 

Immediate affirmative clear and unmistakable answer from your government is the only way to avoid endless misery. Until I have received this answer alas, I am unable to discuss the subject of your telegram. As a matter of fact I must request you to immediately issue an order to your troops on no account to commit the slightest act of trespassing over our frontiers. Willy August 1, 1914

The last message sent on July 29th 1914 by Nicky, to which Willy failed to clarify his ambassador's belligerent tone and threats and also ignored Nicky's request to submit the whole matter to Hague Convention, which was followed by, this, Wilhelm II's last telegram. The German Archives omitted Nicholas II's telegram from the official record and press releases after the war began. The stumbling block is Serbia, which was known to be behind the assassination, long before the proof would turn up. Serbia had a reputation of breaking agreements.  If you remember Serbia in 1990's when they practiced "ethnic cleansing"/GENOCIDE, they have a reputation as among the world's great malefactors. It is depressing to think, everyone else paid mightily for the war they started, while they did not.



Serbia was more responsible for World War One than anyone else, even the Germans and Austrians. Their agent Gavrilo Princip's Assassination of the Austrian Heir Apparent and his wife, brought on the Apocalypse. While Germany, Austria, Russia and France paid a horrific price for the war, Serbia never paid anything approaching what they owed for starting the WWI Apocalypse, which killed 20,000,000 human beings. After WWI, Yugoslavia called the bridge where Princip MURDERED Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Sophie the "Princip Bridge" from 1918 to 1993. After 1993, it reverted to its previous name, the Latin Bridge.  A photo of the bridge today, Franz and Sophie were murdered near the road to the left. 
Of all the leaders, Nicholas II of Russia was the only one trying to stop the insanity of the march to war. He telegraphed Willie. This is why I get angry when people portray him, his family or Rasputin for being responsible for the tragedy of Russia in WWI and the Russian Civil War, since they were the only ones trying to stop it.

  


And his Black Hand, Serbian Military Intelligence, Terrorist Group, The Black Hand, boss, Dragutin Dimitrijević, the man who started World War One. He had been behind the murder of the Serbian King Alexander I and Queen Draga on May 28 1903, moderates who wanted peace and stood in his way to power and world war. King Alexander I of Serbia was a liberal reformer who wanted peaceful change. He supported Austrian Heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand's devolution within the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, giving Serbs a self-governing province. Alexander I created a Serbian Congress elected by the people.  Dragutin Dimitrijević and his co-conspirators massacred then mutilated the bodies of the royal family, throwing them out of the Royal Palace 2nd story window on the lawn. His successor, from a different branch of the royal family, King Peter I sought World War with 20,000,000 dead and saw them as no impediment to the conspirators, Peter I and Princip. Like Stalin, Sverdlov, saw these victims as irrelevant collateral damage.


Princip murdered Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. He was acting at the behest of the Serbian Secret Police, code named the "Black Hand," and together they are responsible for the 20,000,000 killed during WWI and 10,000,000 killed during the Russian Revolution. Which makes Gavrilo Princip as great a mass murder as Adolf Hitler, Joe Stalin, Pol Pot and every bit as evil. He and his supporters couldn't possibly have cared less about the number of innocent dead they caused. As Joe Stalin so eloquently called it, irrelevant collateral damage. 
Contrast that with Russian Czar Nicholas II,  Prime Ministers Witte and Stolypin, Stolypin was voted Russia's greatest leader for the economic boom he fostered. Both men warned against any wars while the Russian economy grew even faster than the US in the late 1890's and early 1900's. Growing pains would make Russia vulnerable to unrest if any military situation or war arose. But then you had Grand Duke Sergei giving exactly the opposite advice, supporting war with Japan after they provoked a fight, even after other countries offered to intervene in the name of negotiations and peace after Japan's surprise attack on Port Arthur, Russia's only warm water port. 



Czar Nicholas II of Russia's telegram to Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany July 29, 1914, 1 AM : I foresee that very soon I shall be overwhelmed by the pressure forced upon me and be forced to take extreme measures which will lead to war. To try and avoid such a calamity as a European war I beg you in the name of our old friendship to do what you can to stop your allies from going too far. Nicky.


And three children became orphans the first victims of the Guns of August


On February 17, 1880 workmen connected to a former Governor of St. Petersburg planted bombs which exploded under the Royal Dining Room. The Palace was under going repairs. Sophia Perovskaya, the daughter of a former governor, conveyed inside information to her boyfriend Andrei Zhelyabov, a Norodnaya Volya, People's Will, Terrorist. It was his group which planted the bombs which almost killed the royal family.




But many people saw it coming, Vladimir Lenin's brother Sasha had been executed for his part in the March 13, 1881 assassination of Czar Alexander II. The Church of the Holy Blood marks the site of the bomb assassination. 




Alexander II was a reformer who liberated the serfs, assassinating him drove his son, Alexander III, to the right, he executed Sasha Ulyanov, Lenin's brother, for the murder of his father. 


Sasha standing in the center of his family with Lenin/Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov sitting to the right. Their father was a school Administrator. 



Years later a train wreck on October 29, 1888 in Borki Russia was believed to have been a possible terrorist attack.




Alexander III held the roof up while his family escaped, but his efforts did serious harm to his health later. Alexander built the Borki Cathedral to mark his family's survival. The Nazis destroyed it in WWII.





The labor unrest which led to Bloody Sunday, when Grand Duke Serge ordered the Cossacks to attack. Czar Nicholas II showed his natural instinct when he found out that workers were regularly being forced to work on Sunday, the Lord's Day. Nicholas demanded that be made illegal, except out of necessity, like hospital employees. Nicholas II's decision benefited workers and made amoral capitalists unhappy. It regained him some of the support he lost in 1905.

PM Sergei Witte (1905-1906) and later Stolypin (1906-1911) saw the wisdom in the move while right-wingers and some members of his family opposed it. While right-winger industrialists, like Ayn Rand's rich pharmaceutical family, also opposed it, for interfering with businesses right to make a profit whatever the cost to their employees, the poor, the people and Russia, Nicholas was clear, a Czar's job was as shepherd of his people. For those who don't know, Ayn Rand was a pen name, the Libertarian Anarchist's real name was Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum. After the  Russian Revolution of March 1917 and the Bolshevik October Revolution, Rand's family lost all their wealth. She felt workers had no rights and as an entitled petulant child, she was going to make sure it never happened again. 




For those who have forgotten who Ayn Rand and the Russian Right-Wing were and why they opposed Nicholas II and what they really believed:

In a Speech to West Point Cadets, Ayn Rand made this speech as reported by Salon Magazine. 

In a logical sleight of hand that would even confound and bewilder even Lewis Carroll, Ayn Rand proclaimed in the 1974 Q&A that it was in fact indigenous Americans who were the racists, not the white settlers who were ethnically cleansing them. The laissez-faire leader declared that Native Americans did not "have any right to live in a country merely because they were born here and acted and lived like savages."
"Americans didn't conquer" this land, Rand asserted, and "you are a racist if you object to that." Since "the Indians did not have any property rights -- they didn't have the concept of property," she said, "they didn't have any rights to the land."
If "a country does not protect rights," Rand asked -- referring specifically to property rights -- "why should you respect the rights they do not have?" She took the thought to its logical conclusion, contending that anyone "has the right to invade it, because rights are not recognized in this country."
Rand then blamed Native Americans for breaking the agreements they made with the Euro-American colonialists. The historical reality, though, was exactly the contrary: white settlers constantly broke the treaties they made with the indigenous, and regularly attacked them.
"Let's suppose they were all beautifully innocent savages, which they certainly were not," Rand persisted. "What was it that they were fighting for, if they opposed white men on this continent? For their wish to continue a primitive existence, their right to keep part of the earth untouched, unused, and not even as property, but just keep everybody out so that you will live practically like an animal?" she asked.
"Any white person who brings the elements of civilization had the right to take over this continent," Rand said, "and it is great that some people did, and discovered here what they couldn't do anywhere else in the world and what the Indians, if there are any racist Indians today, do not believe to this day: respect for individual rights." https://www.salon.com/2015/10/14/libertarian_superstar_ayn_rand_defended_genocide_of_savage_native_americans/

In fact, Lenin and the leftists saw Stolypin's economic policies as the greatest threat to their movement, because his policies were working. Witte was sent to the US to negotiating a peace agreement with Japan, moderated by Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt. Russia came out much, much better than anyone expected. Teddy Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize for the Peace Agreement. 


Witte at the Russo-Japanese Peace Conference and Stolypin at his desk.



Leftist were playing a zero sum "game," they didn't care who got hurt, they only wanted to overthrow the Russian Government. A bomb was placed in Stolypin's home, injuring members of his family because his policies were working. 


Another bomb was thrown at Stolypin's carriage, nearly killing him.  Stolypin was tough, I think he would have kept Rasputin in line, barring government officials and Society from any contact with him, but allowing him contact with Alexandra and Alexei. Had he lived, he may have been able to have prevented World War One, which he would have opposed on principal. I suspect PM Stolypin would have taken control of the military, firing incompetents and implementing a more logical, intelligent strategy.


Stolypin's grave still visited by pilgrims to this day. Stolypin was murdered by leftists at the Kiev Ukraine Opera House with the Czar and his daughters Olga and Tatiana in attendance on September 18, 1911.  Stolypin was shot twice, once in the arm and once in the chest, by Dmitry Bogrov, a Jewish leftist revolutionary. Bogrov ran to one of the entrances and was caught. Wikipedia




Stolypin rose from his chair, removed his gloves and unbuttoned his jacket, exposing a blood-soaked waistcoat. Stolypin made a gesture to tell the Tsar to go back. He never lost consciousness, but his condition deteriorated. He died four days later. Stolypin's policies favored improving the life of peasants and rural farmers, who made up 2/3's of the Russian population, support for the church and the middle class. His plan was working, even labor leaders were beginning to waiver, as the lives of Russians improved dramatically. Lenin's Bolsheviks and leftist radicals saw him as their greatest threat. Stolypin had to be elminated quickly. Even today he is held in high regard, Russian Presidents Gorbachev, Yeltsin, Medvedev and Putin have visited his grave.





PM Pyotr Stolypin's grave in Kiev, below, has become a site of pilgrimmage ever since his death, even during the Bolshevik, Communist and Stalinist eras. 



Alexander III Czar of Russia and his Empress Marie, he saved the lives of his family at Borki, but started to suffer from kidney disease from the huge stress of holding the roof of the train car up while his family escaped.  On November 1, 1894, the towering, powerful Czar Alexander III died and Nicholas II became Czar.




Alexei and Tatiana by the Alexander Palace bridge and under guard






Alexei and his tutor Gilliard on the dock by the lake by the Alexander Palace.


Alexei smoking on the bridge




The Romanovs and their guards at Tsarskoe Selo, the family became friendly, until the Bolsheviks took over. 





Khodynka Tragedy, 500,000 Russians gathered in a huge Parade Ground to celebrate the new Czar Nicholas II








19th of May. Saturday. Until now, everything was going, thank God, like clockwork, but today there was a great mishap. The crowd staying overnight at Khodynka, awaiting the start of the distribution of lunch and mugs pushed against buildings and there was a terrible crush, and awful to say trampled around 1300 people!! I found out about it at 10+1⁄2 hours before the report by [minister of war] Vannovski; a disgusting impression was left by this news. At 12+1⁄2 we had lunch and then Czarina Alix, Alexandra, and I went to Khodynka to be present at this sad "national holiday." Actually there was nothing going on: we looked from the pavilion at the huge crowd that surrounded the stage from which the orchestra played all the time the anthem and "Glory." Went to Petrovsky Palace, where at the gate I received several delegations and then entered the yard. Here dinner was served under four tents for all township heads. I had to make a speech, and then another for the assembled marshals of the nobility. After going around the table, we left for the Kremlin. Dinner at Mama's at 8. Went to the ball at French Ambassador Montebello's. It was very nicely arranged, but the heat was unbearable. After dinner, left at 2 PM.


— From the diary of Emperor Nicholas

In the crush to receive the gifts celebrating the new czar, 1282 Russians were crushed and killed, another 20,000 injured. Nicholas II's advisors, most from his dad's cabinet, especially, Grand Duke Sergei, argued with the Czar that he should go to a ambassadorial ball, instead of implementing a period of mourning. A huge mistake. The Czar's enemies used it to smear the new Czar and Czarina. 

These same carry over cabinet members would push Russia into war against Japan. Japan was provoking several powers in the East as they sought to expand their empire. Russian Prime Ministers Witte and Stolypin argued against war, Russia had invested huge amounts in agriculture and industrial expansion, not the military, The Russian Navy included wooden ships, while the Japanese Navy was 100% all modern, steel navy. A massive Japanese surprise invasion, without provocation or declaration of war, attacked Russian Port Arthur on January 8/9th 1904 and quickly achieved victory.  Exactly as happened on December 7, 1941, when the Japanese did not declare war before bombing Pearl Harbor, a war crime under the Geneva and Hague Conventions, which Nicholas II helped write and sponsored.  On May 27/28th 1905 the Japanese modern fleet destroyed the Russian fleet at Tsushima.




This led to the 1905 Revolution which forced the Czar to accept a legislative body, the Duma, and limits to imperial power. 


There is a debate whether Orthodox Father Gapon was an Okhrana Spy. Okhrana was the Russian Czarist Secret Police. Father Gapon led the 1905 protests and wanted to meet the Czar, when the Cossacks attacked the protesters on Bloody Sunday. Nicholas's uncle Sergei was a champion of repression and drove the calls to attack the protesters. On Sunday January 9th 1905, Cossacks attacked Gapon's peaceful, unarmed protesters, killing 234 protesters.





There is a serious debate whether Father Gapon committed suicide after the failure of his protests and the massacre of Bloody Sunday. But there is a competing theory, that his fellow protest leaders found out that he had connections with the Okhrana, the Russian Secret Police. They murdered him and made it look like a suicide. 
Nicholas II's Uncle, Grand Duke Sergei, would pay for giving the order to the Cossacks to attack the peaceful protesters, days later he was assassinated by leftists on February 17, 1905. Remember Sergei pressured the Czar to go to the Ambassadorial Ball following the Khodynka Tragedy, which damaged the Czar's reputation. He would also champion the War with Japan. While PM Witte and future PM Stolypin lobbied against it. Another disaster, as head of St. Petersburg security, the Czar was out of town, Sergei ordered the Cossacks to attack the peaceful protesters. 
 

The Nazis during WWII destroyed Russian cities and towns, palaces and churches, then rapaciously robbed the Catherine and Alexander Palaces at Tsarskoe Selo. The Nazis stole the Amber Room, a gift from Prussian King Frederick the Great to the Russian Czar. The amber paneling has disappeared from history.





Rasputin and Czar Nicholas II were right, Russia should have acted as peacemakers instead.

Rasputin, Nicholas II, PM's Witte and Stolypin OPPOSED Russian entry into any war, including World War One, but the English, Serbians, Germans, Austrians and the Russian Right-Wing cheered Russia's entry into the war, especially after Germany and the Austrians mobilized their massive armies. Russia had spent billions on economic growth under PM's Witte and Stolypin and were unprepared, Russia raised 3,000,000 soldiers, but only had 2,000,000 rifles for them.



British Spy Oswald Rayner is believed to have been behind the campaign to smear Rasputin. Rasputin was incredibly popular with Russian high society, especially women, who fell under his charm, giving him entre to government officials and business leaders. Rasputin took advantage of these women for his own prurient interest, for money and sex, giving plenty of ammunition to his opponents. Once the orchestrated campaign to smear Rasputin was unleashed by the British Secret Service/MI6, it inevitably turned on the German born Czarina.  




Rasputin and British Secret Service Agent Oswald Rayner, the man who murdered him.


British Intelligence started a smear campaign against Rasputin, but that led immediately and directly to a smear campaign in the press against SHY, German born Empress Alexandra, who had no idea how to respond.  






Oswald Rayner's smear campaign against Rasputin led directly to smears of the Royal Family, the law of unintended consequences.

The Russian Security Services spied on Rasputin, watching as woman after woman entered his apartment on the 3rd Floor, left, of his 64 Gorokhovaya Street in the evening, leaving early the next morning after an evening of hedonistic debauchery.






The original door and handle, the window are still in place from the last time Rasputin left his apartment.


Czar Nicholas II's only son, Alexei Romanov, inherited Hemophilia, the bleeding disease, from his mother's family, Queen Victoria's descendants, where every cut or bruise was life threatening. The Monk Rasputin was becoming well known among the nobility and elites in St. Petersburg, the Russian Capital, as a healer and mystic. As her son Alexei suffered health crisis after crisis, Alexandra invited Rasputin to the Alexander Palace to heal her son after his latest attack. Alexei recovered and Alexandra was convinced he was a miracle worker. 
                      
Now, for the weird part of the story.  For centuries, Native Americans, Ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Celts and Romans would treat headaches by chewing willow bark/leaves which brought almost immediate relief.  At the turn of 19th century. aspirin, salicylic acid, was discovered as the component of willow bark/leaves which provided pain relief. Aspirin became a miracle drug, The synthetic version of salicylic acid was discovered in the late 1890's by a Bayer Pharmaceutical scientist, Felix Hoffmann. He called his discovery acetylsalicylic acid, which is derived from the synthetic chemical a(cetyl) and the spirea plant, from which it is derived. Bayer patented the name aspirin. Hoffmann experimented with aspirin by testing it on family members, especially to alleviate his father's painful rheumatism. Beginning in 1899, Bayer distributed a powdered aspirin to physicians for patients who experienced pain from arthritis, headaches and injuries. As a result doctors wrote millions of prescriptions, after its safety was established just before WWI, it was approved for over the counter sale.   Since Alexei was constantly in pain, the royal family doctors gave him high doses of aspirin to relieve his pain. That was a huge mistake.
                                     

                                                 
Unknown to doctors, discovered only in the 1950's, aspirin prevents blood from clotting by preventing blood platelets from sticking together. Platelets cause blood clots and scabbing, which would normally stop bleeding. To a boy with hemophilia, who has an excessive bleeding problem, large doses aspirin would make his bleeding problem many times worse and could kill him at any point. It is easy to imagine Russian Court Doctors innocently giving Alexei massive doses of aspirin at Spala for his pain.  
When Romanov Empress Alexandra called on Rasputin to treat her son, the first thing he did was speak soothing words to the boy and Alexandra, trying to calm him and his mother down, then he would banish doctors and their cures, INCLUDING ASPIRIN.  Alexei would always stop bleeding within a few minutes after Rasputin came in to treat him.




One of the most serious, life-threatening incidents involving Alexei and Rasputin occurred during the summer of 1912 while the family visited their Polish hunting lodge at Spala. After a jolt during a carriage ride, the young prince “developed a hemorrhage in his thigh and groin.” Not only did this cause severe pain to Alexei, but the large hematoma which formed soon became life-threatening.
Frantic for her beloved son, Alexei’s mother Alexandra sent a telegram to Rasputin, who was at home with his family at the time. Rasputin wrote back, telling her that God was looking after her child, and then told her to have the royal doctors to leave Alexei alone. Amazingly, Alexei’s bleeding ceased of its own accord a couple days after Rasputin’s telegram was received. Alexandra took it as a miracle which had saved her son’s life. One of the royal doctors was perplexed enough, after predicting and preparing the family for Alexei's death, to say it was a miracle and saying, privately, that he now understood why Nicholas II and Alexandra were so drawn to Rasputin.

"God has seen your tears and heard your prayers. Do not grieve. The Little One will not die. Do not allow the doctors to bother him too much." Grigori Rasputin

Even today Aspirin has proven to be one of the great medical discoveries.  87% of all strokes are caused by blood clots in the brain, which block blood flow and can cause varying degrees of paralysis, almost all of which cannot be reversed, 13% are cerebral hemorrhages, where a blood vessel tears and   massive amounts of blood can build up within a person's skull within minutes. Since skulls are enclosed to protect our brains, this very often almost immediately causes a coma and/or death. President Franklin "FDR"  Roosevelt had high blood pressure during his 12 years as President from 1933 to 1945. After helping us overcome the Great Depression and win over Adolf Hitler and Germany and the Japanese, FDR had a cerebral hemorrhage on April 12, 1945 in Warm Springs, Georgia, dying within hours. It would have been normal to give FDR aspirin when he first complained of a headache. Within a month, on May 8th Germany surrendered to the allies and within four months so would the Empire of Japan.  



Doctors now recommend taking a small dose aspirin, 80 mg daily if you are over 50-years-old. 87% of all strokes are caused by blood clots which can lead to brain cell death, memory loss and paralysis, As exemplified by Alexei's suffering, aspirin prevents platelets from clotting, diminishing the chances of a stroke and paralysis. But it is NEVER proscribed for anyone suffering from hemophilia.   https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-disease/in-depth/daily-aspirin-therapy/art-20046797



Rasputin and his nemesis Prince Yusupov


But the real man behind Rasputin's murder, English Spy Oswald Rayner (29 November 1888, in Smethwick, Staffordshire, England – 6 March 1961, in Botley, Oxfordshire, England)  never got the " "credit" for the mess he made until the 1990's. It can be argued that Rayner was the real man behind the Russian Communist Revolution. 

One of the most brilliant German Officers in the last 200 years is also the one who has received the least credit. German Intelligence Colonel Max Hoffmann convinced his commanding officers, Generals Hindenburg and Ludendorff, to attack Russian General Samsonov at Tannenberg along the Russian/German border. Though Russian General Rennenkampf's army was closer, much larger and more of a threat to the Kaiser's Army, Hoffmann accurately predicted, the petty, lazy, overly cautious Rennenkampf would delay coming to the aid of Samsonov, regardless of the peril. Samsonov and Rennenkampf's armies outnumbered the Germans and could have defeated them, but separately they were no match for the Germans.  If the Germans mounted a lightning attack against Samsonov with overwhelming numbers, they could wipe out his army and then turn on Rennenkampf. So the German Army surrounded Samsonov and his army, wiping them out. Just as Max Hoffmann predicted Rennenkampf never lifted a finger to help Samsonov until it was too late. General Samsonov committed suicide. Then the Germans turned on Rennenkampf and defeated him at the Battle of Tannenberg. Over and over again, it would be Hoffman's brilliant's deductions, which led to German victories on the Eastern Front. Hindenburg and Ludendorff never gave any credit to their brilliant intelligence officer, prompting Hoffman to describe Hindenburg's contribution, after the war, while guiding military cadets on a tour of the Tannenberg Battlefield: "See-this is where Hindenburg slept before the battle, and, between you and me, this is where Hindenburg slept during the battle." 
General Ludendorff would employ Hitler in military intelligence after WWI. Hitler would infiltrate liberal groups, then testify against the members in military TREASON trials which always led to summary execution. The Bridge at Remagen which American Troops captured in the last months of the war was named the Ludendorff Railroad Bridge. Field Marshal Hindenburg would appoint Hitler Chancellor in January 1933. Max Hoffmann was opposed to Hitler. 


Colonel Max Hoffmann, Field Marshal Hindenburg, promoted after the Battle of Tannenberg from General to Field Marshal, and General Ludendorff, commanding officer of the German Army and later a close friend of Adolf Hitler. When his stepson died in battle, Ludendorff had his body embalmed and kept in a casket in his HQ Building. which he visited several times a day. His subordinate officers wondered whether defeat on the battlefield drove him insane. 

Germany's Ludendorff Bridge, General Ludendorff was a supporter of Hitler going back to before the Munich Bierkeller Putsch of November 8 and 9th 1923. At the end of WWI, when the Kaiser Spring Offensive failed thanks to the brilliant counter-offensive by French Commander Marshal Foch, Ludendorff's last great German battle, General Ludendorff told his men that it was liberals, unions and Socialists who sabotaged the German War Effort. Failure on the battlefield which he and Hindenburg directed and orchestrated quickly became the fault of civilians back home.


Ludendorff and Hitler before the Munich Beerhall Putsch November 8 and 9th 1923. Hitler was sentenced to 5 years in prison for this act of TREASON, but was let out after s7 1/2 months. 


German Chief of Staff General Ludendorff lied to his troops after the failure of the German Spring 1918 Kaiserschlacht/Kaiser's Offensive which began on March 21, 1918, saying the defeat was caused by labor unions, liberal and Socialist disloyalty. Iron Cross 1st Class Winner Corporal Adolf Hitler believed him. Totally discounted was French Allied Commander Marshal Foch's brilliant counter attack, which by July 18, 1918 had caused the Germans to suffer 688,341 dead and wounded in the four and a half months from this last ditch German Offensive. 
Few people know that General Ludendorff hired Adolf Hitler to work for German Military Intelligence after the war. Hitler would infiltrate liberal and leftist groups, then testify against them at military treason trials. The verdict for which was always summary execution. Leftist orators Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Leibknecht were victims of these patriotic "trials." 
If the Ludendorff Bridge had been named for Max Hoffmann, the real German Hero of WWI, maybe there would have been no  Hitler and no World War II.


British MI6 Spy and Key Player in the Bolshevik's success in the Russian October Revolution, intentionally or not, Oswald Rayner


Nicholas II's abdication for himself and his son Alexei, for 24 hours Michael, Nicholas II's younger brother, was Czar before he too abdicated.


The war continued to go badly for Russia, 1000's of lives lost every week, then the food shortages occurred in St. Petersburg and Moscow.  By March 1917, as protest grew, the Russian Duma overthrew the Czar, who abdicated for himself and his son Alexei. His brother Michael was Czar for 24 hours before he too abdicated.  Then Duma Leader Alexandr Kerensky became the leader of Russia in March 1917. He imprisoned the Romanov Family at the Alexander Palace in Tsarskoe Selo outside of St. Petersburg. Then he continued exactly the same policies of the Czar with exactly the same result. Kerensky's stupidity directly led to the October Bolshevik Revolution which put Lenin, Stalin and the Communists in power.  Kerensky fled Russia and ended up at the right-wing Republican Think Tank The Hoover Institution at Stanford University. 









Alexei swimming in the Alexander Palace Lake and with his puppy "Joy". 


On the extreme right is Deverenko, the long time servant/sailor who would abandon the family after the March Revolution, next to him stands the ever loyal sailor Klementy Nagorny, who died defending Alexei after a Bolshevik stole Alexei's crucifix. In the background may be Igor Konstantinovich, Alexei's cousin and best friend, in the back/center are Alexei and his Dad to the left. 

Russia voted a few years ago to choose the greatest Russian of all time. They chose Russian PM Pyotr Stolypin. He and his predecessor PM Witte, both fought to keep Russia out of wars while guiding the booming Russian economy, which even exceeded the US during the late 1890's and early 1900's. The huge growth, caused labor unrest, shortages and political unrest. Stolypin and Witte were opposed by right-wingers, who proposed war was the best way to deal with the unrest. Japan was a growing military power in the Pacific. Japan and her government were testing Russia, England the US in the Pacific. Japan launched a surprise attack, without a declaration of war, just as they would against US when they bombed Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941. Russia spent billions on economic development instead of military equipment, the Russian Navy still included wooden ships and steel ships with technology 20 years out of date, while Japan had bought a practically brand new navy. Russia's antiquated Pacific Fleet was destroyed at Tsushima on May 27, 1905, within weeks, the 1905 Russian Revolution followed, leading to the installment of a Duma, a Russian Legislature.  Former PM Witte died February 28 1915 and Rasputin was murdered in December 1916, they had almost succeeded in convincing Czar Nicholas II to seek peace talks, British MI6 would do anything to stop them, whatever the cost to Russia. 

Under Alexander Kerensky, the man who led the coup against the Czar, things only went from bad to worse. Seated at the Czar's desk and speaking to the Russian Duma, making all the wrong decisions. But he would write later, it was all Rasputin and Nicholas II's fault. Honesty was not one of his virtues. 







What was accomplished by Kerensky's March 1917 Russian Revolution, which overthrew the Czar? Absolutely nothing! Looking at Kerensky's actions  in hindsight and the fact that he refused to take responsibility for the result, never questioning Russia's downward spiral, blaming everyone else, one comes to the conclusion that Ronald Reagan friend Kerensky handed Russia to Lenin and the Bolsheviks. 
Exactly the same policies produced exactly the same disastrous results. But England was happy, as long as the Russian people were the ones paying the horrendous price for keeping German soldiers occupied on the Eastern front.

Russian PM Kerensky sitting at the Czar's desk in the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg. Albert Einstein defined insanity as repeating the same behavior over and over again, looking for and expecting a different result. Kerensky maintained EXACTLY the same policies  as the Czar and fully supported Russian involvement in WWI, whatever the cost. Kerensky's policies produced exactly the same disastrous result. I have always viewed General Kornilov and Admiral Kolchak as Great Russian Patriots, while I've always seen Ronald Reagan's friend Alexander Kerensky as among the great fools and traitors of history. Kerensky refused to support the White Russia Forces in the Russian Civil War against the Bolsheviks and openly opposed Russian Patriot Admiral Kolchak.


The English waivered in their support, both financial and political, of the White Russian forces, leading directly to the betrayal of Admiral Kolchak, who was turned over to the Bolsheviks, who immediately executed him and dumped his body in the Angara River. A horrible end to one of Russia's greatest patriots.

As bizarre as it sounds, The Mad Monk, Rasputin, was the sanest and most intelligent voice in Russia. He lobbied for peace talks. If the Czar had announced his intention to seek peace talks, even if they failed. Nicholas II's standing in Russia would have grown stronger. I would also suggest the German Kaiser Wilhelm II would have discovered a huge amount of his own people supported peace talks too. Remember the Kaiser and German Military had promised victory within weeks of the beginning of World War One in August 1914; four years later, millions of dead and billions of dollars in expenditures and no one was closer to victory than they had been in 1914 when the war started.

German Peace Protesters in the last days of Kaiser Wilhelm II German Empire. If the Czar had called for Peace Talks, they would have come out in support of a peace movement. 


People forget that 1,000,000 Berliners protested CONSERVATIVE/ROYALIST Chancellor Franz von Papen including Nazis Adolf Hitler and Herman Goering in his 1930 coalition cabinet. Hitler demanded that all protesters be arrested for TREASON by the Gestapo, which had been created by Goering, so they could be thrown in Concentration Camps. Remember Hitler got 5 years for his Treasonous Munich Beerhall  Putsch/Coup which KILLED 20, but only served 7 1/2 months after the judge let him out early. Hitler proposed long prison terms to life imprisonment for protesters in concentration camps and leaders subject to the death penalty. 


A groups of pacifist back to nature teenagers, the Edelweiss Pirates, earned the special wrath of Hitler and Himmler.


In 1942, Hitler and Himmler ordered the hanging of these PACIFIST teenage Edelweiss Pirates in Cologne, in the center of downtown. Himmler had photographs of their execution taken to distribute among other pacifist groups.



Free Speech activist and 14-year-old Boy Scout Helmuth Hubener would hand type copies of White Rose Free Speech Pamphlets and hand them out on the streets of Hamburg. In December 1936, Hitler Youth membership reached over five million boys. That same month, membership became mandatory for all German Aryan boys over 10-years-old under the Gesetz über die Hitlerjugend. At the same time membership of German boys in international groups like the Boy Scouts became ILLEGAL.  
Helmuth REFUSED to quit the Boy Scouts and refused to join the Hitler Youth. Helmuth was immediately arrested and sent to a Nazi Concentration Camp by the Gestapo. His Mormon Stepfather was a leading SS Officer and did nothing to save his son. 
Teenager Helmuth Hubener was only told of the Justice Ministry's decision to execute him at 1:05 PM on October 27, 1942 and beheaded by the Gestapo at 8:13 PM. Helmuth had spent the last 3 years of his life in a concentration camp. His Mormon parents and church refused to claim his body, which was then dumped into a mass grave.  A poster of Helmuth Hubener is displayed in the Hamburg, Germany School Board Building reception area. Hamburg named a street after this heroic young man. Though very few people have ever heard of Helmuth, to me, he is a true hero for the ages.




Russia at the end...

The Romanovs lasted 300 years, British MI6 Agent Oswald Rayner's man, Alexander Kerensky, lasted a little over 7 months. Riots, protests and assassinations were occurring throughout Russia every day,. Soldiers were deserting by the 100,000's.  Royalists and Conservatives realizing what a disaster Kerensky was, asked General Lvar Kornilov to overthrow Kerensky's government in a coup as a last resort in September 1917. It failed  Lenin had arrived in St. Petersburg/Petrograd in April 1917, thanks to the German Kaiser. He had one message, PEACE now, at any price and bring the boys home. It doesn't take a genius to figure out to whom the people listened. 


Rasputin proposed negotiating a peace agreement among all the combatants in WWI to end the war, while Lenin bought peace for Russia at any price, while 1,000's of men, women and children continued to die every day. But Lenin, Stalin, Sverdlov, Trotsky never proposed ending the killing, 10,000,000 more Russians would die in the Russian Civil War which followed the Bolshevik coup-de-tat. Who was a greater Russian Patriot, Nicholas II, Lenin or Rasputin? Kerensky? Sverdlov? Stalin? As much as Nicholas II has been wrongfully blamed for things beyond his control, Rasputin may have been morally hedonistic, but Rasputin and Nicholas II were the only ones trying to save lives and the only ones who cared about the Russian people.

Think I am kidding? Russian Bolshevik Negotiators Brest-Litovsk Agreed, led by Trotsky and approved by Lenin, sent the German 6 BILLION MARKS IN GOLD, the equivalent of $84 Billion Dollars today, then Lenin/Trotsky/Stalin/Sverdlov gave the Germans 58,000 Square Miles of Russian Territory, the size of the US State of Georgia. 

 




But the main thing it accomplished was allowing the Germans to withdraw all their troops from the East and sent them to the Western Front in time for the March 21, 1918  Kaiserschlacht, Kaiser's Spring Offensive. At that point, but Germany's reservoir of troops was dwindling, even with the transfer of 1,000,000 German Eastern Front soldiers from Russia to France, they could not afford the 688,341 casualties. But the Allies could afford 863,374 casualties. French Marshal Foch could absorb the loss because of the arrival of 1,000,000 US Troops. Foch was smarter than the German command, he took the losses but maneuvered the Germans back to where they started before the spring offensive. When Ludendorff and Hindenburg realized this, they convinced the Kaiser the war was over. 

All of World War One on the Western Front was fought on French soil killing almost 2,000,000 French men and doing almost $50 Billion 1918 Dollars/$1 Trillion in 2020 Dollars in DAMAGE. 
Adolf Hitler's militarist Germany invaded and overran peaceful Belgium, the Netherlands and France starting on May 10th 1940 in a surprise attack through neutral Belgium and the Netherlands. A war crime under the Geneva and Hague Conventions. By June 22, 1940 the war was over and all three countries surrendered. People don't realize that the French collapse in WWII is directly attributable to the 1,500,000 to  2,000,000 dead French young men killed in World War One, men who never married and never had children, 100,000's more French young men were crippled and disabled in World War One. On top of that, German soldiers were accused of many atrocities in both Belgium and France, including the massacre of innocent civilians, including killing, summary execution, of boys as young as 10-years-old as possible threats to their troops. The Germans were required to pay $50 Billion Gold Marks in reparations to France during the Versailles Peace Conference. That is roughly the  equivalent of $768 Billion Dollars today in 2020. The amount was repeatedly downgraded because of the Communist threat and the Great Depression. No one wanted the German Weimar Republic to collapse.


Millions of French Children became orphans because of WWI. German troops would take special joy in beating boys 10-years-old and up, looking for any excuse to shoot and kill them. These French boys and girls became a truly lost generation.

Kerensky later came to US and was a fellow at the right-wing Hoover Institution at Stanford. He became a very close friend of actor Ronald Reagan. To me, Kerensky is as much a villain as Grand Duke Sergei, Stalin, Sverdlov and British MI6 Spy Oswald Rayner.
 



Alexei was sometimes shy, ducking behind the windshield while being filmed.


Finally giving in and smiling for the camera


Alexei throwing a snowball at his French Teacher Mr. Gilliard 


Then laughing when he realizes his perfect crime was caught by a newsreel camera








To me, dinner was not the only ham in the family, that was Anastasia's job.





Shh, don't tell mom.


By the time Kerensky's March Revolution and Lenin's Bolshevik October Revolution occurred, the light had gone out of the girls' eyes. Anastasia and Olga radiate sadness and fear.

Dad would always find time for his son, all of the Romanovs were close. Taken during a break from Military HQ in Mogilev. And with the Czar's sister Olga on vacation in Finland.


The Family on the roof ot the Tobolsk Governor's Palace getting some winter sun.


Czar Nicholas II and his son, Alexei, cutting firewood to stay warm during the cold Russian Winter at Tobolsk 1918 at bottom taking a break after working in the garden the Tsarskoe Selo Palace in 1917. The servants were gone, so they had to grow their own food and cut their own firewood.


After they were moved to Tobolsk, Alexei rode a sled down the stairs, either from cabin fever, a possible suicide attempt or boredom, which led him to become a semi-invalid, his knees would bleed and swell for the remaining few months of his life. It was this injury which prevented him from going to Ekaterinburg with his mom and dad. Alexei was in constant pain for the remaining weeks of his life. Before they left Tobolsk, Russian regular soldiers/guards were replaced by Bolsheviks and they got a new commander, Jakob Yurovsky, because of incidents like the following.

One guard, Ivan Skorokhodov appears to have fallen in love with Marie. Skorokhodov went as far as to smuggle a small cake into the house for Grand Duchess Marie’s 19th birthday. At least once, but probably more, the two were able to get alone together. They eventually were caught. The record is disappointedly vague as to what exactly they were caught doing, but the incident contributed to Commandant Avdayev being relieved of duty. Skorokhodov was expelled from the Ipatiev house, and soon disappears from history. Aside from Skorokhodov, and his forbidden flirting with Maria, many of the guards seemed to have become friendly with the Romanov family, to their detriment later. The Bolsheviks/Communists never forgot or forgave. Skorokhodov was sent to prison for fraternizing with the family.

Alexei's playroom at the Alexander Palace




Alexei and his sisters even had a sled slide inside the palace for when it was too cold to sled outside, Being a prisoner took 12/13/14-year-old Alexei's childhood from him. Though his family did everything to make sure Alexei never blamed himself or his hemophilia for this tragic turn of events, at some level he must have harbored the thought. Olga and Tatiana having a meal with tutor Gilliard and other members of the household in Tobolsk. None could realize their lives could be counted in days. 


After the palisade was built the family would go on the Tobolsk Governor's Palace Greenhouse roof to get some sun. A photo taken by Tutor Sydney Gibbes of Tobolsk immediately after their arrival. 



The fortress city of Tobolsk today


Alexei riding a giant swing at Stavka Military HQ and later at Tobolks before his injury. All normality and happiness were quickly snuffed out by Yurovsky and the Bolsheviks. 





Olga was a terrific big sister, towing her bother Alexei and his best friend Joy on their sled.

  

Alexei was in pain and losing weight, the family was living on a peasant diet after Yurovsky blocked food provided to the family by local residents. Alexei in Tobolsk, photographed wearing his uniform minus epaulets, rank and award medals, which had been stripped from Alexei and Nicholas by Yurovsky. Yurovsky was a petty, vindictive man. From the moment he arrived, he was planning the family's massacre. So forget the Bolshevik/Stalinist lie that Czech soldiers approaching Yekaterinburg were the reason for the Romanov Murders. He scouted areas to dispose of their bodies from the moment Tatiana, Alexandra and Nicholas II arrived in Yekaterinburg in March 1918. The only delay was waiting for the arrival of Alexei, Anastasia and Olga. 


Yurovsky and the Bolsheviks had built a palisade around the house, then whitewashed the windows, totally cutting off the family's contact with the outside world. The interior stairs at Tobolsk. Alexei took a sled and road down them, crashing and tumbling into a heap at the bottom. Alexei was injured and would be bedridden for weeks afterwards.   Historians have debated whether it was an attempt to bring a break to the unending monotony of their lives as Bolshevik prisoners or a suicide attempt by Alexei.


The Four Grand Duchesses shared one room in Tobolsk


While Alexei slept in his parents room, he continued to occupy it after his Mom and Dad and Tatiana left for Yekaterinburg in March. In late May 1918, Alexei, Olga, Maria and Anastasia would join their parents at Ipatiev House, the Bolshevik House of Special Purpose.



On July 13, 1918, Nicholas Romanov made the last entry in his diary:  Alexei took his first bath since Tobolsk; his knee is getting better, but he cannot straighten it completely. The weather is warm and pleasant. We have absolutely no news from the outside.

 

Olga, Maria and Anastasia looking out the window of the Tobolsk Governor's Palace, which probably means this photo was taken after Nicholas, Alexandra and Tatiana left for Yekaterinburg aboard the Steamer Rus. 



The sisters were probably photographed from the street at the second window by the drainpipe. The Bolsheviks would eventually nail every windows shut, then soap them so no one could see out or see in.






At Tobolsk, the family had nothing but time, no life, a boring repetitive life. The Bolsheviks constructed a wooden palisade to isolate the family and forbid locals from providing food for the family. They would repeat the strategy when they moved the family to Ekaterinburg, adding insults, pornographic graffiti and demeaning and cold relations with the family. In April 1918, the Nicholas II, Alexandra and Tatiana were moved to Yekatinburg from Tobolsk, but Alexei's health was too fragile, so he couldn't be moved. Yurovsky and the Bolsheviks ordered the Czar and Czarina to pack, the children decided Tatiana would go with mom and dad, while Olga, Maria and Anastasia would stay behind with Alexei until he was able to undertake the trip. By late May, they would make the journey to join their parents. One of those odd footnotes, to prevent intervention or ambush, the trains flew a foreign flag. Considering the Russo-Japanese War, it is astounding that the Bolsheviks chose the Japanese Rising Sun flag. There must be something Freudian in their choice.



The Steamer Rus passed Rasputin's hometown Pokrovskoye, photo taken in 1912, on the way to Yekaterinburg, she took it as a sign of hope and crossed herself. 



The sailor Nagorny, who attended to Alexei Nikolaevitch, passed my window carrying the sick boy in his arms, behind him came the Grand Duchesses loaded with valises and small personal belongings. I tried to get out, but was roughly pushed back into the carriage by the sentry. I came back to the window. Tatiana Nikolaevna came last carrying her little dog and struggling to drag a heavy brown valise. It was raining and I saw her feet sink into the mud at every step. Nagorny tried to come to her assistance; he was roughly pushed back by one of the Bolshevik Commissars. Sydney Gibbes, the Romanov English Tutor

    



We know the girls screams brought Nagorny to their aid, for which, he was severely beaten by the Bolsheviks. Everyone commented that Olga became withdrawn and remote, but we will never know if she was raped by the Bolsheviks under Yurovsky.  But Bolsheviks who watched Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia and Alexei go to the bathroom in an outhouse with the door open, leering and saying vulgar remarks to the children would hardly pass up a chance to rape the children.



We will never know why the girls, the Russian Grand Duchesses, screamed during the night sailing aboard the steamer Rus to Tyumen for the train to Yekaterinburg a distance of 1579 miles. Everyone said that Olga changed, became very distant, quiet and avoided people outside of her family. We do know that Russian Navy Sailor Klementy Nagorny came to the rescue, for which the Bolsheviks gave him a vicious beating.



A young Nagorny from about 1913, hero and loyal friend to the Romanov family, the second photo is in dispute.


 



Photos identified as Klementi Nagorny,  Below is a photo which is very often identified as Nagorny, but this man is far too short and far less robust than he was. This is another loyal Czarist Russian sailor, Ivan Sednev. The photo immediately above shows Alexei, born in 1905, about 4-years-old with Nagorny aboard the Royal Yacht Standarte. 



Romanov English Tutor Gibbes took this photo of the kids' carriages, which would take them to the train to Yekaterinburg. Gibbes and Gilliard were forbidden to travel with them, since they were foreigners. 



On May 22, 1918, Alexei, Olga and Anastasia arrived at Tyumen to board the train to Yekaterinburg. 


Old Yekaterinburg Train Station



Yekaterinburg was an industrial city in Siberia, which was a stronghold of the Bolsheviks


The fortress city of Yekaterinburg, today.

                             

Bolshevik Peter Ermakov stands on the graves of Nicholas II, under the railroad ties, buried with his wife Alexandra and his children. Ermakov was proud of executing his unarmed prisoners, especially the children. He would brag about shooting and bayonetting the screaming children. He was a Bolshevik who took pride in his work  He took great pride in taking tourists to the grave and expanding on his part in the massacre, revelling in the screams and blood, especially the two coup-de-grace headshots of Alexei by Yurovsky. The boy's head practically exploded. 


Of the Assassins, Ermakov enjoyed the limelight the most, he would guide tours of the local merchants Ipatiev's house in Ekaterinburg, glorifying in the blood and gore, while his boss, watch repairman, vicious Jacob Yurovsky would write, with gusto and pride, reports of the massacre over the next 30 years, which earned him promotions and success in the USSR bureaucracy. He was vicious, cold, cruel and distant to the terrified family, They feared him the most, when he took over he made it clear, he cared nothing about them, while taking time to occasionally and gratuitously insult the family, especially the Czar. He apparently allowed Bolshevik guards to draw obscene pictures of the family on the walls and family latrine. The children were guarded while they went to the latrine, there are reports that the latrine door had to remain open while the children used the facilities, giving  the guards a chance to ridicule and laugh at the children to dehumanize and humiliate them. 


Yurovsky and Ermakov, the most vicious of the Bolsheviks, were cruel for its own sake. They knew why they were there and they intended to take sadistic joy from it. There is an un-confirmed report that when the children, Alexei, Olga and Maria were sent aboard the Steamer Rus to Yekaterinburg to join their parents, Bolshevik guards may have attempted to rape Maria and Olga.  While the 6'5" Navy Sailor Klementi Nagorny was assigned to guard and help Alexei, when he heard the screams from Olga and Maria, he raced to their aid, for which he was severely beaten. We will never know why the girls screamed. Nagorny was murdered by the Bolsheviks at Ipatiev House in May, a couple of months before the July 16th family massacre. Apparently, one of the Bolshevik guards had stolen Alexei's crucifix and Nagorny caught him. Nagorny was executed for laying hands on the Bolshevik thief. 


Nagorny to the left, Alexei in front center, Makarov & Agaev are the two boys with him.




The Czar of all the Russias, Sednev the young kitchen boy helper and the ever loyal sailor Klementy Nagorny

One of the few survivors was Leonid Sednev, a teenage kitchen servant who followed the family to Yekaterinburg and had become friends with Alexei. Though poor and a much later addition to the household, he was well liked by the family and a good kid. We now know the Bolsheviks debated who to kill and who not to kill. The tutors Gilliard and Gibbes, foreigners, were allowed their freedom in Tobolsk, the Bolsheviks then argued over the teen but finally decided Sednev was poor and an innocent, so they let him go, the last to see Freedom from the Romanov household. Leonid was the nephew of Ivan Sednev, the Grand Duchesses Footman. The Bolsheviks let young teenager Leonid go after murdering his uncle and Nagorny. Leonid is to the left, Tatiana is to the right. One report has him under suspicion by local Stalinist Secret Police, Cheka. Leonid was reportedly killed in WWII fighting the Nazis. Wikipedia has the following Report. 



Empress Alexandra's last entry in her diary, July 16, 1918, the day before the massacre:
Every morning the commandant comes to our rooms: at last, after a week without, brought eggs again for Alexei, who is doing better but is still in pain. ate supper. Suddenly, Leonid Lenka Sednev [the kitchen boy] was fetched to go and see his uncle and flew off -- wonder it's true and we shall see the boy back again! 

Sednev is alleged to have written a brief set of memoirs of his time in the Ipatiev House, though its existence is disputed. There are conflicting accounts of his ultimate fate; according to one report, he was shot in 1929 in Yaroslavl on charges of participating in a counter-revolutionary conspiracy, or he was either killed during the Battle of Moscow in 1941; according to the obd-memorial.ru (CAMO) he was executed on the verdict of the tribunal of the Bryansk Front for an unspecified crime on 17 July 1942, exactly 24 years to the day the Romanovs were executed. Wikipedia



Lenin wanted a show trial for Nicholas II and Alexandra, followed by their execution. His  deputies Sverdlov and Stalin wanted the whole family killed immediately. Sverdlov came from Yekaterinburg and knew the Ural Soviet Members, the men who implemented the massacre---had his whole hearted approval and encouragement. With the approach of the White Russian/Anti-Communists and Czech Armies, Sverdlov and Stalin won the argument. Lenin sent this telegram ordering Yurovsky to massacre the whole family.


THE TRUTH

In reply this telegram was sent to Lenin and his aids announcing:  A. G. Beloborodov, Chairman of the Ural Regional Council, to Secretary of the Council of People’s Commissars N. P. Gorbunov with the message: “Tell Sverdlov that the whole family has suffered the same fate as the head. Officially, the family will die during the evacuation.”




The Lie

FAKE Telegram sent by Yacob Yurovsky, Alexander Beloborodov, Georgy Safarov and Filipp Goloshchyokin saying Romanov family had been evacuated.  

 

Ural Soviet order to obtain and pay for Sulfuric Acid, which was used to defile the bodies of the Romanov family and their servants.

                               

My next visit to Moscow took place after the fall of Ekaterinburg. Talking to Sverdlov, I asked in passing: ‘Oh, yes, and where is the Tsar?'

‘It’s all over,’ he answered. ‘He has been shot.’

‘And where is the family?

‘And the family along with him.’

‘All of them?’ I asked, apparently with a touch of surprise.

‘All of them,’ replied Sverdlov. ‘What about it?’ He was waiting to see my reaction, I made no reply.

‘And who made the decision?’ I asked.

‘We decided it here. Ilyich/Lenin believed that we shouldn’t leave the Whites a live banner to rally around, especially under the present difficult circumstances.’

I did not ask any further questions and considered the matter closed."  Trotsky


Nicholas and Alexandra by Robert Massie, whose son, Robert Kinloch "Bobby" Massie IV, had hemophilia like Alexei, which  prompted his Dad, a Newsweek columnist, to write his Romanov bestseller, which came out in 1968, which I read when I was 11-years-old. The movie followed in 1971.


Robert Massie and his son Bobby, the inspiration for Nicholas and Alexandra, the first and best book about the Romanovs.







The Bolshevik guards enter the basement of the Ipatiev House where the Romanovs have been told they will await vehicles to transport them to another, more remote, destination, but Alexei appears to be the first to realize that they are about to be murdered, he kisses his Dad good-bye.




I remember hearing that Roderic Noble, who played Alexei, quit acting after the movie, so he could have a normal life with normal kids as friends. Good for him. 



But the thing I remember most from "Nicholas and Alexandra" was the incredible, ominous and powerful portrayal of Rasputin by the wonderful "Dr. Who" actor Tom Baker.  A slow speaking cadence gave his deep bass voice an ominous, threatening character, which fit the historical Rasputin. But it is far more than that, Baker was able to convey a religious sincerity and a peasant's joy in hobnobbing with the richest and most powerful families in Russia. And yet his deep voice could also convey a Christian kindness and gentleness in dealing with Alexandra and Alexei. It must be one of the most incredibly brilliant and complicated portrayals in the history of movies and must have been closest to the real Rasputin as anyone has ever or ever will get. 



We learn of the Bolshevik efforts to justify the massacre of the Romanovs. 
Beloborodov directed the smuggling of letters written in French to the imprisoned Romanovs at the Ipatiev House, claiming to be a monarchist officer seeking to rescue them, composed at the behest of the Cheka/Bolshevik Secret Police. These fabricated letters, along with the Romanov responses to them, written either on blank spaces or on the envelope, were ultimately used by the Ural Soviet, and likely the Central Executive Committee in Moscow, to justify murdering the Imperial Family amidst the rapid gains made by the White Army in the region. In July 1918, when Yekaterinburg appeared to be at risk of being captured by the Czechoslovak Legion, Beloborodov and the other members of the Ural Soviet ordered the immediate execution of the prisoners. Beloborodov and Georgy Safarov remained at the local Cheka headquarters at the Amerikanskaya Hotel while Goloshchyokin arrived at the Ipatiev House to personally direct the executions.
Following the killings, which took place during the early morning hours of 17 July, Beloborodov sent a coded telegram to Lenin's secretary, Nikolai Gorbunov. It was found by White investigator Nikolai Sokolov and reads:[2]
"Inform Sverdlov the whole family have shared the same fate as the head. Officially the family will die at the evacuation."

Stalin had made a career as a Terrorist and Bank Robber before the October 1917 Bolshevik Revolution. Sometime before the 1905 Revolution, Stalin had proposed loading a truck with explosives and ramming a police station in a Russian City outside of Moscow. Lenin said isn't that located next to a Junior High School with 1,000's of students. Any explosion would kill 100's of students. Stalin replied irrelevant collateral damage. Neither Sverdlov or Stalin had an ounce of humanity between them. 



Cold-Blooded Sverdlov at his desk after the successful Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. The world was lucky, he caught the "Spanish" Flu and died March 16, 1919. A couple of days after the massacre, all the Russian leaders were given a briefing on the killing. Though he would deny he had advanced knowledge, Leon Trotsky was known to have attended this meeting. Lenin, Stalin, Trotsky and Sverdlov knew all of the gruesome details of the Romanov family massacre. 


Young Bolshevik Revolutionary Leon Trotsky, as cold-blooded as Sverdlov and Stalin, would attempt to rehabilitate and humanize his reputation after being exiled by Stalin. On May 22, 1922, Lenin had the first of three strokes which would eventually leave him paralyzed. On January 21, 1924, he had the final stroke which killed him. A state funeral was planned. Stalin as Party Secretary deliberately and brilliantly, gave Trotsky the wrong date for Lenin's funeral causing him to miss the most important event in the USSR's history up to that date. Everyone at the funeral angrily noted Trotsky's absence, this was the beginning of the end for Trotsky in Russia, Stalin's #1 Competitor/Opponent. In 1929, Trotsky was forced into exile, living the life of a refugee.  On August 21, 1940, Stalin had KGB/Cheka Assassins murder Trotsky in Mexico where he then lived. 

Trotsky may have been brilliant, but he wasn't nearly as duplicitous, deceitful and cunning as Stalin. Even before his exile, Stalin had the Cheka/KGB begin a campaign against Trotsky. Photographs of Lenin mysteriously would be reprinted, but Trotsky and other Stalin opponents would suddenly disappear. 

Stalin with Hitler's Foreign Minister von Ribbentrop signing the German/Russian Non-Aggression Pact, allowing them to invade and split Poland on August 23, 1939.  Treacherous Stalin would be shocked when even more Treacherous Hitler invaded Russia in Operation Barbarossa on June 22, 1941 breaking the pact.


Trotsky might have considered it amusing, Stalin had a stroke at his suburban
 Moscow  Kuntsevo Dacha  sometime after 4 AM March 1, 1953, but he gave an order that he was not to be disturbed. Guards heard a noise, but weren't sure if Stalin dropped something, but no one ignored an order given by Stalin. No one saw him all day, very unusual for him, but it wasn't until the cleaning woman was sent in at 11 PM to see if he needed anything that his comatose body was discovered. His blood pressure was 210 over 120, indicating that he had a cerebral hemorrhage.  Had he gotten medical help, something to lower his blood pressure, something might have been done for him, but by 11 PM it was too late. Stalin was a co-conspirator in his own death. 





Trotsky's absence from Lenin's funeral was noted in the party newspapers, Stalin made sure his photo carrying the casket was on the front page of every Russian newspaper and magazine.




A LIE coming out of WWI, which you may not know:
For those who don't know, the Spanish 1918 Flu did NOT start in Spain. Soldiers at a US Military Base in Kansas USA came down with the "Spanish" Flu in 1917, sui generis. Soldiers from this base took the disease with them when they were shipped out to Italy, a US Ally in WWI. All Western and Eastern Ally and Axis Powers had press censorship. Spain was not a combatant in WWI and had a free press, so it was the only country to openly speak of the Pandemic, which killed 50,000,000 people world-wide, hence the pandemic became known, undeservedly, as the Spanish Flu.


A 1918 Georgia Tech Football Game, spectators were required to wear face masks to stop the spread of the 1918 Kansas Flu, also known as the "Spanish" Flu. In 1918, people took the contagion far more seriously than the Trump Administration did in 2020.




I believe that the 2020 Coronavirus Pandemic should be called the Trump Flu, he denied it existed and did nothing to fight or deal with it, leading to 600,000 American deaths in one year, more Americans died from the Trump Flu than were killed by the 1918 "Spanish"/Kansas Flu over the three years it plagued US. 

Trump doing nothing led directly to the deaths of kids like teenager Zach Leviton. 


Or College Student and Athlete Chad Dorrill, who was in excellent physical condition, when he was struck down. 


Or Bethany Nesbitt of Indiana, she wasn't feeling well and took the Coronavirus test, she died waiting on the results.  Trump did nothing when it would have made a difference, just as, one imagines, Sverdlov and Stalin would have, not caring about irrelevant collateral damage.


But you would have had to care to have noticed or done anything about it. 

While Sverdlov was a cold-blooded intellectual. He only cared about a Bolshevik Victory, people's lives were irrelevant, one life or a million innocent lives meant nothing to him. You kill whomever you have to or want to kill and then move on to kill more people. Killing the Romanovs, including their children, meant absolutely nothing to him or Stalin. Both men killed without hesitation or conscience.
Lenin's adjutant Alexei Akimov stated in a 1957 interview: "Yakov M. Sverdlov, Russian Communist Head of State, for whom Ekaterinburg was renamed Sverdlovsk in 1924, sent me with that telegram to the telegraph office on July 4, 1918 and said, 'Send it carefully.' That meant that I had to bring back not only a copy of the telegram but the tape itself.
"After the operator sent it I demanded the copy and tape. He wouldn't give me the tape, which recorded the actual Morse Code dots and dashes of the message.
"I took out my revolver and threatened to kill him. Once I got the tape I left and returned to Lenin."  This copy of the Lenin/Sverdlov/Stalin Massacre Telegram was found in the Yetkaterinburg telegraph office, where the Ural Soviet and Yurovsky murderers had left it.


Lenin's murder telegram, written in code, calling for removal of the Romanovs as a problem for the Bolsheviks. Another telegraph message sent from Yekaterinburg to Moscow and recovered by Sokolov the White Russian Investigator:

″Tell Sverdlov the entire family suffered the same fate as its head. Officially the family will perish in evacuation.″
The message was signed by Alexander Beloborodov, chairman of the Ural Soviet, and addressed to Nikolai Gorbunov, an aid to Sverdlov, who acted as Lenin’s head of state and leader of the Cheka secret police.

Gorbunov

One note about Dzerzhinsky's Cheka, the Bolshevik Secret Police at Yekaterinburg, a statement was found in 1957 in the USSR Archives, which reveals the true horror of the Romanovs last few months. Anyone capable of doing this, would be capable of anything. 
"While the Cheka agents threw the naked Romanov family's bodies in the ditch, some of them, the despicable low-lives that they were, actually touched and explored the naked bodies of the young Grand Duchesses, including their genitals, labia and vaginas." One of them said in a interview, quote: “I felt the empress myself and she was warm” another one said “Now I can die in peace because I have squeezed the empress’s breasts.” An order was given at some point that the bodies of the girls, Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia  Romanov were not to be groped or raped. Though it is not recorded in the records released from the archives, the question arises, was this prompted by one or more than one of  Felix Dzerzhinsky's Cheka Bolshevik Secret Police having raped or attempted to rape the dead children's bodies? We do know that the girls' bodies were violated in death. Sometimes revolutionaries are nothing more than sick perverts, it is sickening that Yurovsky or anyone else would be forced to issue an order like this. I will never stand by and allow any other interpretation of the events of July 1918 in Yekaterinburg as anything other than a perverted crime against humanity.   

Years later Felix Dzerzhinsky's successor Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria changed the name of the Cheka first to the NKVD and finally to the KGB. Beria was known to prowl in his chauffeur driven limousine looking for young girls, some as young as 13-years-old. The girls would be forced into his car and then raped at his dacha. He even did this during World War II. There is a story cited in Wikipedia that Dictator Joseph Stalin was looking for his daughter Svetlana and found out that she was at Beria's dacha. Stalin ordered his security detachment to IMMEDIATELY go and retrieve her. Though it turned out that the purpose of the visit was totally innocent, Stalin appears to have known the perverted truth about Beria. Pictured below Cheka Chief Dzerzhinsky, who created the Red Terror, which killed millions of Russians, and Beria, wearing glasses, visiting Stalin and Svetlana. 

     

Trump friend, former Cheka/NKVD/KGB Boss, Russian President Vladimir Putin is pushing a call to place memorials to Cheka/NKVD Chief Dzerzhinsky up throughout Russia.  https://www.themoscowtimes.com/2021/02/25/a-vote-on-restoring-a-secret-police-chiefs-statue-opens-old-wounds-in-russia-a73068





Yakob Yurovsky (1878 -1938) in later life, proud of what he did, he was rewarded with promotions from the Bolshevik Communists the rest of his life. He died of a peptic ulcer.



Vagankovskoye, Novodevichy Cemetery, a locked Bolshevik Cemetery near Moscow, none of the urns are labeled and the doors are kept locked. Yurovsky and his wife are believed to have been buried here. After he died in 1938, a series of calamities struck the family, Yurovsky was the perfect Bolshevik, like Stalin, cold-blooded without a drop of humanity. murdering a family and children meant nothing to him.



Yurovsky and his wife they had three children: daughter Rimma (1898), sons Alexander (1904) and Eugene (1909), the family lived comfortably and had servants. All Yurovsky's descendants received higher education. Then tragedy came for them: One grandson was accidentally poisoned by deadly mushrooms. Another hung himself, another fell off a barn roof, another was killed in a car accident. Rimma and her husband were arrested during Stalin's purge and sent to the Gulag until released in 1946. In 1952, Yurovsky's son Alexander, a Rear Admiral in the Russian Navy, was arrested, following Stalin's death in 1953, he was released. Alexander died in 1986.

A photograph of the governing committee of the Ural Soviet which issued the order to Yacob Yurovsky to murder the Romanovs, after receiving Lenin's telegram giving his OK. Chairman Alexander Beloborodov, second from left commanded Yurovsky to make sure no one survived. He would later side with Trotsky in his fight with Stalin. Stalin never forgave him, nor did he forget. In 1938, Stalin had him executed during the great purge of  1937 to 1938, in which 950,000 to 1,250,000 Russians were killed. Historians later learned that this purge was inspired by German spies who convinced Stalin that Russian Generals and politicians were conspiring against him. Russia would pay for Stalin's paranoia in WWII when they had to rebuild their entire military command, after losing 800,000 soldiers killed and 6,000,000 wounded/captured during Hitler's Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of Russia.

The Lenin government issued a statement a few days later saying, to protect the state, patriots had killed Bloody Nicholas. Only a year later did they vaguely suggest the family was dead too, but gave no details, implying that they had been victims of fighting between Czech soldiers approaching Yekaterinburg and Bolsheviks. 

There are different Yurovsky reports, a very detailed at the end of this page follows, but a briefer and concise version of the massacre is here: 

Yurovsky with the rest of his squad. He ordered all of the prisoners to stand. Placing himself in front of the Tsar, holding the execution declaration in his hand he declared, “In view of the fact that your relatives continue their offensive against Russia, the Ural Regional Soviet has decided to sentence you to death.” Nicholas stared back and stuttered in disbelief, “Lord, oh my God!” He hesitated for a moment and turned to look at his family then turned back to Yurovsky, “Oh, my God what is this, I can’t understand you, read it again.” Yurovsky attempted to read the order again, but the Tsar interrupted, “What, What?” Yurovsky crumpled up the order in his hand, drawing his pistol with the other, “This” he exclaimed while pulling the trigger. The round exited the barrel of the of the gun with a defining thunder clap, slamming into the Tsar chest which exploded in a crimson gush. Suddenly everyone in the squad starting firing their pistols rapidly into the body of the Tsar. Nicholas lurched forward slamming to the floor, a red puddle rapidly forming around his body. 
No one followed the order to only shoot the victim they had been assigned to kill. The room quickly began to fill with smoke, making the other intended victims hard to discern. Yurovsky yelled for them men to aim at the other victims, but to no avail. The rapid poorly aimed shots began to ricochet and a few of the execution squad member were lightly injured. When the smoke began to clear the Empresses’ Doctor Botkin, the chef Kharitonov and the Tsar’s footman Alexei Trupp were badly wounded, but not dead. The first volley had sent bullets into Dr. Botkin’s lower extremities although wounded he had tried to throw his body in front of the Tsar, probably not realizing the he was already done for. Trupp had collapsed to his knees having been shot in the femur and thigh. One of the executioners who saw the Tsar’s former footman on his knees beneath the smoke ended his suffering with a few well placed rounds in his skull. 
Another executioner fired several rounds in succession at the Imperial family’s former chef Kharitonov. The bullets hit him with such forces and Yurovsky would later say,”he sat down and died. With all the firing that had been directed toward the Tsar, the empress, Alexei, the daughters, and Anna Demidova the empresses’ maid were all very much alive. Ermakov on seeing this swung his Mauser pistol at the head of the Empress, upon seeing the barrel of the gun she attempted to cross herself, but only got half way though the act when Ermakov pulled the trigger. Her head literally  exploded covering the crazed Ermakov in her blood and gore. The force of the bullet drove her violently back and her corpse crashed to the floor.
The Killing was far from done. When the shooting started the Tsar’s daughter’s stood frozen in place unable to comprehend what was happening to them. Maria, the daughter who only weeks earlier had shared her birthday cake with one of the guards broke from the group and hurled her little body against the set of locked double doors in the back of the room. She pounded against the door, rattled the knob and screamed for help. No help would come. Upon hearing the commotion Ermakov turned toward Marie. With his Mauser empty of bullets he reached into his belt for one of his other pistols and fired off a poorly aimed shot. The round hit her in the thigh and she collapsed on the blood stained floor, wounded but very much alive. He then turned to the empresses’ maid Anna Demidova still frozen in fear and fired several rounds. The bullets caught her in the upper thigh shattering the bone sending her crashing to the floor, no doubt in excruciating pain but alive. At this point the room was filled with toxic acrid smoke. The executioners could see almost nothing and were choking on the fumes and plaster dust. Realizing the shooting was haphazard at best, and fearing for the safety of his men, Yurovsky ordered the shooting stopped. With their eyes stinging from the gun powder, their lungs burning from the toxic fumes Yurovsky threw open the basement room doors and his men staggered from the room into the corridor. Paul Medvedev, collapsed against the corridor wall and began to vomit. He slumped down further, pale faced and began to convulse. He wasn’t alone, at least a few of the other men did the same. In the room the victims not dead, some withered on floor screaming out in utter agony. Sadly the pain had just began. Yurovsky waiting a few moment for the fumes to clear and reentered the room with Alexei Kabanov, the bloodthirsty Ermakov, Kudrin and his second in command Nikulin.
When the men crossed the threshold, they found that Dr. Botkin had not perish. On the floor covered in blood the badly wounded doctor was attempting to raise himself from the floor. Yurovsky stepped across the now massive pool of blood pressing the barrel of his Mauser pistol again the doctor’s temple and pulled the trigger. The bullet ripped though Botkin’s head and exited the lower right of his skull, the force causing his body to slam to the floor. Shockingly the 13 year old Alexei still sat on the chair where his father had placed him with a terrified look on his face, spattered with his father’s blood. This time it was Nikulin turn. With trembling hands Nikulin raised his Browning pistol to the little boy’s chest and emptied the clip. Strangely it seemed to do little, Alexei remained in the chair. Another round from Yurovsky Mauser caused the small body to slump to the floor. Yet he still lived. Both men were out of bullets, Yurovsky yelled to Ermakov to finish the boy off. Ermakov pulled his Mosin-Nagant bayonet from his belt and began plunging the triangular blade into the prone body. Alexie struggled against each strike, it was as if he simply refused to die. Yet this was no miracle. Unknown to Yurovsky, Alexei, was wearing an under shirt that had some of the royal jewels sewn into it, basically creating a bullet proof vest. The bayonet probably glanced off the hard surface of the jewels. Unable to stand by any longer Yurovsky pulled a second gun from his belt, this time an American colt, pushed aside Ermakov and pumped two shots into Alexei’s head, ending his short life.

White Russian Investigator Sokolov's agents were able to enter Yekaterinburg a few days after the massacre and the Bolsheviks fled. They dug out 57 bullets from the walls and floors, which had passed through their victims, more were found later in the mine shaft, Four Brothers, where the bodies were originally dumped, Sokolov speculated a minimum of 70 were fired that horrible July 16 night. Sokolov found these jewels in the mine shaft, they had been sewn into the girls, Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia, and Alexei's underwear.  His investigation would last until the Red Bolsheviks won the Russian Civil War. Another 10,000,000 Russians had been killed. Sokolov's investigators took a photo of the actual gravesite without knowing it. They had been told that the Fiat Truck had gotten stuck and railroad ties were used as a means of getting it traction and out of the mud. They had actually found the Romanov gravesite. 


As part of his investigation, Sokolov would go undercover, pretending to be a peasant, so witnesses would feel comfortable talking to him and tell him the truth. 


On February 7, 1919, White Russian leader Admiral Kolchak charged Jurist Sokolov to investigate the disappearance of the Romanov family in Yekaterinburg. 


Romanov family possessions recovered by Sokolov at Ipatiev House, including Alexei's toy soldiers.
 


The end of the Romanov Czars, Four Brothers Mine with Sokolov's men above, Sokolov actually found the railroad ties covering the Romanov family bodies, but didn't date them to the time of the massacre. So close to the truth, yet so far.


The Sokolov Investigators were ordered to investigate the Romanov disappearance by White Russian Leader, Admiral Kolchak who battled the Bolshevik Reds in the Russian Civil War. Sokolov's investigators began by looking into the Four Brothers Mine Shaft where the Romanovs had originally been dumped. 


Sokolov's investigators retrieved this wooden floor plank from the Iapatiev basement with Romanov blood on it.


Admiral Kolchak



Today the Four Brothers Mine is visible today as a deep depression




Anastasia's dog Jimmy, a King Charles Spaniel was found here in the Four Brothers Mine Shaft, an earlier photo from his owner and friend. Bullets and their casings were found in the bottom of the shaft.

Even in captivity, the kids loved their pets and children, Tatiana with a child at Tobolsk. 




After a hard day in the garden raising their own food, even Russian Royalty need to take a break


Every day the same, nothing ever changed. 




Above, Anastasia's dog Jimmy was found in the Four Brothers Mine. Jimmy was sitting in Anastasia's lap when Yurovsky's Bolshevik Cheka assassins entered the room and murdered her. Found in the mine shaft, where the Bolsheviks originally dumped the Romanov bodies, was  a Romanov jeweled cross, bullets and a finger which had been severed during the massacre, both the cross and finger belonged to Russian Empress Alexandra Romanov.





The bodies were taken out the back door of the Ipatiev House, still hidden behind the palisade constructed by the Bolsheviks, a Fiat Truck like this took the Romanov bodies to the Four Brothers Mine, then to the remote woods where their bodies were found over 70 years later.



On the wall of the death room where the Romanovs were massacred, written on the wallpaper, in German, was a quote from German Poet Heinrich Heine. It describes a Jewish King killed by his servants immediately proceeding the successful invasion and conquest of Israel by Persian King Cyrus. 


Rudolf Lacher was a German, who had been swayed to the Communist cause by Russian Agents in the German Army. He came to Russia and eventually ended up in Yekaterinburg. He was well educated and probably wrote the quote inscribed on the wall paper in the room where the family was killed. He would later be the only one to express regret as to what happened.  



“Belsatzar ward in selbiger Nacht / Von seinen Kuechter umgebracht”
translated into English: “Balthazar was, on the same night, killed by his slaves”.




Later, near the windows of the cellar room, Nikolai Sokolov's investigators found these words: “'24678 rous. of the year' 'year 1918' '148467878 r’s '878888' and 'polouverchok's” as well as some signs/symbols on the left side. Numerous attempts were made to decipher these signs without success. For example, in 1923, a man called Enel wrote in a book that these mysterious signs were secret Persian characters meaning: “Here, through secret forces, the Czar has been offered in sacrifice so that his country be destroyed. All peoples are informed of this event.”  A couple of issues, first their were Germans like Lacher in the group, possibly other nationalities, which means it may not be Russian or German. Also, guards apparently wrote insulting family graffiti on the wallpaper by the window. One possibility, 24,678 ROU(ble)S for the year 1918. Some sort of payroll computation for the Bolshevik guards. They didn't work for free.  Polouverchok is a person's name?  

 


The room in which the family was killed, the walls were damaged, beyond the original bullet holes, when White Russian Nikolai Sokolov investigators retrieved bullets which passed through the family and servants and lodged themselves in the wall. The light switch is circled as a point of reference.




Nikolai Sokolov, White Russian Investigator



Sokolov's investigators actually came across the wooden railroad ties and took this photo, but were told they were used to get traction for the Fiat which got stuck in the mud on the Bolshevik's way to bury the Romanov family and retainers.


The Romanovs as they were found, exactly where the Bolsheviks had dumped them 70 years before. Two bodies were missing, researchers later determined them to be Maria and her brother Alexei.









Russian President Boris Yeltsin honoring the interment of the Romanov Family in the St. Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg


The Romanov Family and Servants dumped in a mass grave by the Bolsheviks, discovered by Geologist Dr. Avdonin in 1976, recovered in 1991 after the Fall of the Soviet Union.


Dr. Avdonin and Moscow film producer Gueli Riabov visit the site of the Romanov grave years later. In 1976, they discovered the grave after Dr. Avdonin's research. Riabov had come to Yekaterinburg after learning of Moscow's order to destroy Ipatiev House, he met Avdonin and they fueled each other's interest in finding the truth.  Later Riabov would publicize the discovery after the fall of the Soviet Union and caused a rush to recklessly uncovering the remains. Dr. Avdonin wanted an archaeological recovery, the two ceased their association at that point.


Ermakov's gun and bayonet used to kill Nicholas II, Alexandra and the children.
Another one of the guns in the Russian Archives






The site that the Romanov family rested for over 70 years, today marked with railroad ties and a cross.

Since the fall of the USSR, a meager justice has been achieved. Pyotr Ermakov's grave, covered in red paint, standing for the blood on his hands.  


The Patiev Murderers would get together for reunions and to celebrate the massacre years later. Here is a reunion of the Ipatiev Yekaterinburg Bolshevik Assassins. 


The only survivor of the massacre, Alexei's pet spaniel Joy.  He would be rescued from Yekaterinburg and taken to Windsor Palace in  England.

 




Alexei and Joy at Tsarskoe Selo, Olga giving her brother Alexei and Joy a ride on a sled at Tobolsk. Joy would be the only survivor of the massacre at Yekaterinburg. Col Paul Rodzianko serving with the Czech soldiers approaching Yekaterinburg, would find Joy and bring her to his mother's home in Windsor, England, where joy lived for several more years and lies buried.





Joy would go to Windsor England where she would miss her loyal master and friend Alexei for the rest of her life.




The Tsars brother Michael was murdered in Perm, Russia with his friend Nicholas Johnson. The Czarina's sister, Nun Elizabeth of Hesse, the Widow of the Czar's Cousin Duke Sergei, who was killed by terrorists  February 18, 1905 during the 1905 Revolution.




The Czarina's sister was taken with other members of the royal family to a schoolhouse in Alapayevsk Siberia.  



Warning!





Konstantine Konstantinovich, favorite uncle of Czar Nicholas II, at age 16, and his sons Joann/Jonathan, Igor and Konstantine Konstantinovich.










The Alapayevsk Napolnaya School in which Elizabeth and other relatives were kept prisoner until they were shot and thrown down a mine shaft.








With Elizabeth was Alexei's best friend, Duke Igor Konstantinovich and his brothers, the sons of Grand Duke  Konstantine Konstantinovich, Nicholas II favorite Uncle. 


There is a picture of Alexei skinny dipping with his cousin Igor near Nicholas II's wartime HQ, Stavka, at Mogilev. Nothing indecent, but you can see bruises on Alexei's thigh. Bruises can be as deadly as cuts to a hemophiliac. While Nicholas II's family was average height, his uncle's Konstantinovich family were all very tall and robust. 












In 1914, a younger Alexei visited his father at Stavka Command center and built a fortress of pillows to defend against the Germans, between his tutor's classes, by 1916/1917, the war was the only thing which mattered.



The last photo ever taken of Alexei and his sister Olga, on board the steamer Rus headed from Tobolsk to Yekaterinburg and the Bolsheviks. The last photo of Anastasia. As a last insult considering the role played by British Intelligence, Nicholas II and his family were denied sanctuary in England by Nicholas II cousin George V, leading to the execution by the Bolsheviks.  




The Bolsheviks stripped the family naked, poured acid on the faces and genitals then dumped their bodies in an abandoned mine, but someone had seen them and asked what was going on. So the came back the next night, removed the bodies and took them further away from town, they tried burning Alexei and Maria's naked bodies, but it took too long and too much fuel. So they dug a grave covered it with railroad ties. A few hundred feet from here, archaeologist found the meager remains of Alexei and Maria. 



14-year-old Alexei's tooth recovered in the 2007 excavation. 


A ceramic Japanese Sulfuric Acid Jar fragment found at the excavation site.  Receipts show that the Bolsheviks bought Japanese Sulfuric Acid to cover-up their torture murder of the Romanov family.


Kolchak's Investigator Sokolov and his adjutants standing on the fire pit where Maria and Alexei's bodies were burned, Sokolov knew what happened, but didn't know where the bodies were. Maria and her little brother Alexei together in life and death.





Alexei and Maria's remains consist of 44 bone fragments, seven teeth, three bullets and a fragment of clothing. Though the Orthodox Church and remaining Romanov family are incredibly slow in recognizing these remains, there seems little doubt that they are from Alexei and Maria Romanov.



Dr. Alexander Avdonin the discoverer of the Romanov Grave in 1976  http://www.searchfoundationinc.org/final-search

After the Romanov family bodies were found under the railroad ties in 1976 by academics and amateur archaeologists led by Yekaterinburg geology professor Dr. Alexander Avdonin, who kept his discovery secret out of fear of retaliation from the USSR government. In 2007 the academic archaeologists expanded their search area in ever increasing circles, finally finding the meager remains of Alexei and Maria. After they were stripped naked, acid was poured over Alexei and Maria's faces and genitals, then Yurovsky and his Bolsheviks burned their bodies with gasoline. This is all that remains of the children, a few teeth, a few bone fragments. The Bolsheviks realized this would take too long, so they buried the remaining family members and servants under railroad ties in the middle of nowhere. Included in Sokolov's report was a receipt from a chemist’s shop in Yekaterinburg demanding delivery of 400 pounds of sulfuric acid to the Ural Soviet at Ipatiev House, the Bolshevik House of Special Purpose, for which the chemist was paid 196 rubles, 50 kopeks, equivalent to about $95 in 1918 currency. 

Looking towards Alexei and Maria's grave from the Romanov family grave under the railroad ties, Alexei and Maria's remains were found under the cross.





Nicholas II and Alexandra Romanov


In the early 1900's, it was conventional medical wisdom that cutting children's hair off after they caught the measles was necessary to aid and speed up their recovery, so all the girls experienced this "treatment". Son, Alexei is in the middle. As this time, children died from diseases like the measles.





 

Olga to the left, Anastasia next to her and Tatiana to the right. Maria's body was burned with her brother Alexei. 




Alexei's cousins and his Aunt Elizabeth and other Romanovs recovered from Alapayevsk 





The Kremlin ordered Boris Yeltsin the leader of Yekaterinburg area in 1977 to DESTROY the Ipatiev House which was quickly becoming a tourist destination and not to the USSR's benefit. 



The back yard facing the enclosed courtyard, where the outhouse was located, the only part of the outside world the Romanovs were allowed to see, shortly before the building was destroyed.







The Russian Orthodox Church of All Saints was built on the site of the Ipatiev House


The dining room where the Romanov took meals, the Bolsheviks stopped townspeople supplying food for the family, substituting meager peasant food for the family.


The Ipatiev House dining room, this eloquent room was used to serve the Romanovs gruel and barely edible, sometimes spoiled food. Yurovsky's first action as commandant was to bar food, fresh fruit, eggs, vegetables and baked goods from the famly meals. The guards actually ate much better than they did, seizing whatever they needed from towns people of whom they were suspicious, especially wealthy business owners.


The Czar, Czarina and Alexei occupied this room. 


Alexei's bed in the corner.


Photos from Sokolov's investigators

The family slept on this floor, the stairway led to the basement. 


Yurovsky made his arrangements. Starting on July 4, 1918 and for several days in succession Yurovsky went out on horseback. He was seen wandering about the neighborhood looking for a place suitable for his plans, in which he could dispose of the bodies of his victims. And this same man, with inconceivable cynicism, on his return visited the bedside of the Tsarevich!
On Sunday, July 14th, Yurovsky summons a priest, Father Storoyev, and authorizes a religious service. The prisoners are already condemned to death and must not be refused the succor of religion.
The next day he gives orders for the removal of little Leonid Sednev to Popov's house, where the Russian guard are quartered.
On the sixteenth, about 7 p.m., he orders Paul Medvedev, in whom he has every confidence. Medvedev was in control of the Russian workmen - to bring him the twelve Nagan revolvers with which the Russian guard are armed. When this order has been carried out he tells him that all the Imperial family will be put to death that same night, directing him to inform the Russian guard later. Medvedev informs them about 10 p.m.
Shortly after midnight, Yurovsky enters the rooms occupied by the members of the Imperial family, wakes them up, together with their entourage, and tells them to get ready to follow him. The pretext he alleges is that they are to be taken away, that there are disturbances in the town, and meanwhile they will be safer on the floor below.


These steps led to the basement where the family was murdered.


Sokolov's White Russian Investigators dug the bullets which passed through Nicholas II, Alexandra, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Alexei and their staff, which then were imbedded in the wall behind the wall paper. Blood stained towel/clothe found at Ipatiev House by Sokolov's investigators. 




For the next 30 years Bolsheviks would go to the death chamber to celebrate the fall of the Romanovs and the Romanov family's massacre. They even threw macabre parties to mock the family's suffering.

One of the Romanov Tutors accompanied Investigator Sokolov to the Ipatiev House, he retrieved this light fixture and kept it. 



Ipatiev House is now replaced with the Orthodox Church of All Saints in Memory of the Romanovs

The Bolsheviks seized the Romanov Crown Jewels, during tough times during the Great Depression of the 1930's, which affected even Stalinist Russia,  Stalin ordered the sale of items like the Romano Jewelry to raise international currency, including Faberge Easter Eggs containing precious gem stones given by the Royal Family to celebrate the Orthodox Holiday. American Billionaire Malcolm Forbes bought several of them over the years.











 

Peter Carl Faberge Jeweler to the Romanov Royal Family



The name Faberge is still inscribed on the building where Peter Karl Faberge's craftsmen made fantastic jewelry and Easter Eggs for the Royal Family in St. Petersburg Russia, the building survived the Bolshevik Communists.



Dr. Avdonin, a geologist by trade in the Soviet years, was also personally interested in local history and folklore, which in Sverdlovsk had to include the murder of the Romanovs. Indeed, the Ipatiev House, at 49 Voznesensky Prospekt—the leafy end of the town’s main street—where the family was imprisoned and murdered, was called at the time the House of Special Purpose and maintained for some years afterward as the Museum of the Peoples’ Vengeance. Avdonin gathered information informally for years, and, in 1976, met Soviet writer and filmmaker Geli Ryabov [ru], who was given information by the son of one of the killers that led them to identify a precise location and to begin informal exhumations. According to the “Yurovsky Note” a primary historical document authored by the commandant of the Ipatiev House and chief executioner Yakov Yurovsky, the bodies (nine of the eleven) were buried at the place where the truck broke down on the second night following the murder, near Grade Crossing 184 on the Koptyaki Road. Pots of acid had been smashed into the pit to consume the naked remains, and railroad ties had been placed over the pit before a layer of earth. Exhumation of Romanovs' graves
In the spring of 1979, Avdonin and Ryabov began an exhumation of the site, struck the rotted wood of the ties at what they judged a reasonable depth, and dug on. Their methods, though clumsy and potentially destructive to later efforts by professional archaeologists, resulted in the recovery of several skulls. They refilled the pit, kept the skulls briefly, and reburied them with icons and prayers.
Due to the generally repressive Soviet climate, neither Avdonin nor Ryabov said a word about this until ten years later, when Ryabov, in 1989, released the story into the media, causing a rift between the two men, after the fall of the Soviet Union, which was replaced by the Russian Republic.
The site has been treated and explored according to the standards of neither professional archaeology nor careful law-enforcement investigative technique. The official government re-opening in 1991 featured bulldozers, not ultrasound or hand tools. The professional observer stood by in anguish as non-professionals sloshed through the pit, grabbing at bits of ceramic or bone. Evidence indicates that the pit was opened at least once between the re-burial efforts and the "official" opening. Wikipedia

Yurovsky's version of events

Bolshevik Jacob Yurovsky's Official Report of the Romanov Massacre

As regards [sic] rations, the family at the start received a Soviet ration meal. These meals were by far not refined, but [we] decided to stop the meals from the outside. They began to prepare meals in the kitchen. Besides that, I was able to find out that they brought for the imperial family everyday from the monastery, vatrushki [curd tarts] butter, eggs, and so on. I decided to allow this, but was very surprised that such liberties were allowed. Later I learned that this was allowed by Commandant Avdeyev, but Com.[rade] Avdeyev did not pass a lot to the family but kept most of it for himself and his comrades. I decided that all that was brought to the family should be given to them. Only on the second or third day did I find out that the deliveries were allowed by Com.[rade] Avdeyev. I decided to end all deliveries, allowing only milk to be brought, Dr Botkin announced to me that “only after Your appointment during the past two days have we received absolutely everything that was delivered from the monastery and suddenly we are deprived of everything once more, the children need nourishment, but the nourishment is so insufficient, we were very happy that we started to receive all the deliveries from the monastery”. However, I refused to hand over anything except milk, and also decided to transfer them to those rations which was established for all citizens of the city of Ekaterinburg; since there was little produce in the city, I thought that since my prisoners do not do anything and [they] should be content with the same ration which all citizens received. For this reason the cook Kharitonov addressed me with an announcement that he cannot possibly prepare dishes from a quarter of a pound of meat. I responded to him that one needs to get used to living not regally, but needs to live: like being under arrest.
No matter how difficult it was for Kharitonov to deal with this task, he had to start using precise measures and weigh that quantity appropriate for each day. I told him that no extra produce will be released [to them] in case of a shortage.
The room in which Alexandra Feodorovna with the heir were lodged, had windows which came out into the yard, which from the street were barricaded by a wooden fence. She allowed herself to frequently look out the window and come close to the window. Once, however, Alexandra Fedorovna allowed herself to come close to the window. From the sentry she received a threat to be struck by a bayonet.  She complained to me. I told her that looking out the windows is not allowed.
Three-four days before the execution an iron screen was installed into Alexandra Fedorovna's window. In this regard Dr Botkin announced that it would be good if such screens were put into the other windows. The indoor schedule was such: in the morning, they got up before 10:00. At 10:00, I appeared in order to check all the prisoners by appearance. For this reason Alexandra Fedorovna expressed her dissatisfaction that she was not used to getting up so early. Then I said that I can check while she is still in bed. To this she declared that she was not used to receiving anyone while in bed. And I declared that it made no difference to me, whatever she prefers, but I had to check every day. Tatiana and Olga, or Maria - most often Tatiana - came to ask can [we] soon go for a walk. Alexandra Fedorovna rarely walked. When she went out for a walk, then without fail with a parasol and in a hat. All the rest usually walked with uncovered heads. Nikolai took turns walking with one or the other of the daughters. Alexei at this time entertained himself with pop-guns, with the boy Sednev.  
While I was repairing the well, Nikolai came closer to me and made some sort of a comment, but I did not sustain a conversation. Once, while walking, Olga chattered up one of the Letts and asked him where he had served. He replied that he served in one of the Grenadier regiments, where during a military review he saw the tsar's daughters. Olga turned to Nikolai, with the exclamation: "Papa, this is one of your Grenadiers". He [Nikolai] approached and said, "Greetings", evidently hoping to hear "Wishing you health" [customary military response], but only received a simple hello. Long after that a Lett comrade reported that he did not get the chance to talk, because I came over and the conversation ended.
The daughters, especially Tatiana, often opened doors where a sentry permanently stood. [They] tried to exchange pleasantries with them, evidently hoping to win over the Konvoi [military escort]. It must be said that the lads were rather tough and certainly [the Duchesses] were unable to influence them with such niceties.
As far as I was able to notice, the family led a regular middle-class lifestyle: in the morning they drank tea, after consuming tea each one of them occupies with this or that job - sewing, mending, embroidery. The most intelligent of them were (sic) Tatiana, the second – [one] could consider Olga, who resembled Tatiana very much, including facial expressions. What concerns Maria, she is not similar to and [also] outwardly as the first two sisters: [she is] somewhat reticent and considered like a step-daughter in the family. Anastasia the youngest, flushed, with a rather pretty little face. Alexei was constantly ill with an inherited family disease, mostly found in bed, and was therefore for walks carried outside on arms. I once asked Dr Botkin what sort of illness did Alexei suffer from. He told me that he doesn't feel comfortable talking [about it] because this is a family secret, I didn't insist. Alexandra Fedorovna held herself rather grandly, firmly it seems remembering who she was. Concerning Nikolai, it felt like he was part of an ordinary family, where the wife was stronger than the husband. She demonstrated a lot of pressure [sic] over him. The situation in which I found them, they presented as a serene family ruled by the wife’s iron fist. Nikolai, with drooping face looked highly (sic) ordinary, simple, I would even say, [like] a peasant soldier.
Arrogance in the family, apart from Alexandra Fedorovna was not noticed in others. If this was not the detested imperial family, who drank so much blood from the, one could have considered them as simple and not arrogant persons. The girls, for example, would run into the kitchen, helped cook, made-up the dough or played cards - durachki (fools) or pasyans or engaged in washing kerchiefs. Everyone dressed simply, nothing fancy. Nikolai behaved earnestly, “democratically”, and even though - as we found later - he had not a few pairs of good new boots, he without fail wore boots with patches. Not least of their pleasures was to soak in the bath several times a day. I however prohibited them from bathing often since there was not enough water. If one looked at this family objectively, then it could be said that they were totally inoffensive.
The boy Sednev had become so accustomed, and made himself at home with the family, that it was not like a lackey’s attendance assisting the heir to the Russian throne.  Often, annoyed Alexandra Fedorovna with his playing with the little dog, which they had. He however, would not quit this for him a pleasing activity, often [he] poisoned Alexandra Fedorovna’s well being. Trupp and Kharitonov were servants who had the loyalty of dogs to their masters.
Dr Botkin was a loyal friend of the family. In all cases in these or those needs of the family he acted as the petitioner. He was loyal to the family with his body and soul, and worried together with the Romanov family [about] the hardship of their lives. Everyone knows that Nicholai and his family were religious. They asked me if it would be possible to allow them to have obednya [Orthodox liturgy]. I invited a priest and a deacon. When they were in the commandant’s [room] putting on their vestments, I warned them that they can perform the service the way they are supposed to according to their rites, but there were to be no conversations allowed. The deacon stated, “this has happened before and we walked to not such high individuals. One could get confused and a scandal will occur, but in this situation we will swing [the incense burner] with pleasure for their kind souls”. Obednya was served. Nikolai and Alexandra Fedorovna prayed most diligently.
When I took over my duty, the question already stood about liquidating the Romanov family, since the Czechoslovaks and the Cossacks were closing in on the Urals, closer and closer to Ekaterinburg. Nikolai did have some sort of contact with the outside.
In view of the threatening situation, the issue was expedited.
I was entrusted with this issue, but the liquidation was on another comrade.
On 16 July, 1918, about 2 o’clock in the afternoon, comrade Filipp came to the house and presented me with the resolution from the Executive Committee to execute Nikolai, [and] at this time it was pointed out that the boy Sednev must be removed.
That during the night, a comrade will arrive who will say the password “chimneysweep” and to whom the corpses must be given, which he will bury and liquidate the job. I called the boy Sednev and told him that yesterday his arrested uncle Sednev escaped but he was detained once again, and that he wants to see the boy. Therefore I am sending him to his uncle. He rejoiced to be sent back to his hometown. Restlessness began in the Romanov family. As always, Dr Botkin immediately came to me and asked [me] to tell [him] where the boy was sent. I told him also what I told the boy, but he was still somewhat concerned. Later, Tatiana came, but I calmed her, saying that the boy went to see his uncle and will return soon. I summoned the head of the detachment, comrade Pavel Medvedev from the Syseretsky Factory and others, and told them that in case of an alarm they have to wait until they receive an agreed upon special signal. Having called the inner guard who were chosen for the execution of Nikolai and his family, I assigned the roles -  and directed who will shoot whom. I provided them with “Nagan” system revolvers. When I allotted their roles, the Letts said that I spare them from the responsibility of shooting the girls, because they would not be able to do that. Then I decided it would be for the best to completely free these comrades from the shooting as people who are not capable of performing their revolutionary duty at the most decisive moment. Having completed all the appropriate assignments, we waited for the “chimneysweep”. However, not at 12, not at 1 o’clock did the “chimneysweep” appear, and the time was passing. The nights were short. I thought that they will not come today. Alas, at 1:30 they knocked. The “chimneysweep” has arrived.  I went to the lodgings woke up Dr Botkin, and told him that everyone has to dress quickly because there are disturbances in the city, and that I must transfer them to a safer place. Not wishing to hurry them, I gave them the opportunity to get dressed. At 2 o’clock I transferred the escort [guard] to the lower premises. Told them to arrange themselves in [their] arranged order. I alone led the family downstairs. Nikolai was carrying Alexei in his arms. The rest, some with pillows in their hands, some with other items, we came down to the lower level to a special room previously prepared. Alexandra Fedorovna asked for a chair, Nikolai asked for a chair for Alexei.
I ordered that the chairs be brought. Alexandra Fedorovna sat down. Alexei as well. I suggested that everyone stand up. Everyone stood up, taking up the entire wall and one of the side walls. The room was very small. Nikolai stood with his back to me. I announced: the Executive Committee of Soviet Workers, Peasants and Soldier Deputies of the Urals carried [a decision] to shoot them. Nikolai turned around and asked (sic). I repeated the order and commanded “Shoot”. I shot first and killed Nikolai to drop (sic).  The firing went on for a very long time, and despite my hopes that the wooden wall would not cause a ricochet, the bullets bounced off it. I was not able to stop this shooting for a long time, which took on a disorderly character. But when I finally was able to stop it, I realized that many were still alive.
For instance, Dr Botkin lay propped up on the elbow of his right arm, as if in a relaxed pose, a revolver shot finished him off, Alexei, Tatiana, Anastasia and Olga were still alive too. Also alive was Demidova. Com. Ermakov wanted to finish the job with a bayonet. However, this was not possible. The reason for this became clear later (the daughters had diamond armor [sewn] into their under bodices). I was forced to shoot each one in turn. Most unfortunately, the valuables brought down with the executed attracted the attention of some of the red guard who were present, who decided to steal them. I proposed that the transfer of the corpses be stopped and asked Com. Medvedev to watch in the truck that no valuables were touched. On the spot, I [personally] decided to gather everything that was there.
I positioned Nikulin to watch the road when they would load the corpses, and also left another below to watch those who were still there. After the loading the, I called in all the participants and demanded that they immediately return everything they had taken, otherwise threatened punishment. One by one they began to return what they happened to have. Turned out there were two [or] three weak-willed men. Despite the fact that I had the inclination to commission the remaining work to com.[rade] Ermakov, I was worried that he would not be able to perform this job in the proper way, [and] decided to go myself. I left Nikulin [behind]. Ordered not to remove the [guard] watch, so that nothing changed outwardly.

At 3:00 or 3:30 in the morning on 17 July, we headed in the direction of Verkh-Isetsky factory.  Passing the yard of the factory, I asked Ermakov if he brought instruments in case we had to dig a pit. Ermakov told me that they had prepared a mineshaft and therefore no instruments will be needed, but most likely one of the lads grabbed something. Departing three versts from the Verkh-Isetsky factory we stumbled upon an entire camp of droshky and mounted riders. I asked Ermakov, “What does this mean?”. He told me, “These are all our lads who came to help us”. Why did you need such a mass of people, why did you need the droshky? He told me.  I thought that all these people would be needed. And since I did not know his plan, I continued to follow in the truck. More than once we got stuck in the mud. At one spot we got stuck between two trees and stopped. Further there was the swamp. Could not go further in the truck. The workers, among whom were non-members of ISPOLKOM of the Verkh-Isetsky factory, expressed their displeasure that the corpses were brought, not the living, whom they wanted to torment to satisfy themselves … When [we] started to unload  the droshky, it appeared very and (sic) very difficult (did not think to bring wagons). With great difficulty we had to pile the corpses into the droshky in order to go further. The promised mineshaft was not there. Where the mineshaft was, no one knew. When they started to unload the corpses from the truck, the lads again started to ransack [their] pockets. Here it was found that something was sewn in [their] belongings, and here I decided that before I bury them, I will burn these belongings. I threatened the lads so that they do not take part in this matter and continue the unloading. The mounted riders went to look for the mineshaft of which they spoke. Riding for some time, they did not find any mineshaft, returned with nothing. It already started to lighten. Peasants were going out to work. Nothing more was left but to move in an unfamiliar direction. Ermakov was adamant that he knew of another mineshaft, somewhere further, and we headed in that direction. About 16 versts from Verkh-Isetsk and about 1½ or 2 versts from Koptyaki village, we stopped.  The lads drove into the forest and returned saying that [they] found the mineshaft. We turned into the forest. The mineshaft turned out to be very shallow. Some kind of abandoned old remains (sic). Unharnessed the horses. Built a fire. Placed a strike-force (sic) from the riders around the forest. Chased away the peasants [who] were nearby. Surrounded the area with mounted riders. I started to undress the corpses. Undressing one of the daughters, I found a corset which had something tightly sewn [in it]. I ripped it and found precious stones. Masses of people, in this situation were completely undesirable. The precious stones caused involuntary shouts, exclamations. Not knowing these lads well, I said, “Lads, these are trifles, some kind of plain rocks”.  I stopped the work and decided to let everyone go, except a few more or less known to me and reliable, as well as a few mounted riders. I kept five men for myself and three riders, the remainder I let go. Besides my people, there were also 25 persons who Ermakov had prepared. I set about anew to unseal the precious stones. The precious stones were found to be with Tatiana, Olga and Anastasia. Here the special position Maria held in the family was confirmed, on [Maria] there were no precious stones. On Alexandra Fedorovna there were long strings of pearls and a huge coiled golden ring, or rather a hoop, about a half a pound. How or who wore this thing seemed strange to me. All these valuables I pulled out here from skillfully prepared brassieres and corsets. There was no less than half a pood [18 pounds or 16 kilograms] of precious stones. Among them were diamonds and other precious stones. All items (dresses and so on) were burned right there in the fire. On all their necks small pillows were worn, into which were sewn the prayers and teachings of Grishka Rasputin. On the spot where the clothes were burned, we found precious stones which [were] probably sewn into separate places and in dress folds.
However, after the red army men arrived later, [one] brought me a fairly large diamond weighing about 8 carats, and said, take the rock, I found it where the corpses were burned.  
By the order of the Ural Regional ISPOLKOM, I took these jewels to Perm, and handed [them] over to Com. Trifonov. Later, Com. Trifonov along with Com. Filippov (Goloshekin) and Com. Novoselov “committed these items to the soil of the Ural proletariat”, [was] how Com. Smigla expressed it, in one of the small houses, temporarily occupied especially for this [purpose] in Alapaevsk factory. In 1919, after taking-over of the Urals, these items were dug up and brought to Moscow.
The place for Nikolai’s eternal rest was quite unfortunate. But there was nothing left to do, but to temporarily lower them down into this mineshaft so that on the next day, or later the same day, [we could] undertake something else. We lowered the corpses into the mineshaft. In the mineshaft there was no more than one - one and a half arshins [one arshin = 2.3 feet or 0.7 meter] of water. I left the guard. Arranged the mounted guard. I personally went to town in order to report to the Soviet that the matter could be left the way it was. At the Soviet saw comrades Safarov and Beloborodov. Reported [to them] what was done. Pointed out the impossibility of leaving them in that mineshaft. Told them that it was necessary to find another spot, [and] during the night exhume and bury them in another place.  Com. Beloborodov and Safarov did not give me an answer at that time. Later, com. Filipp recommended one comrade who was supposed to destroy the corpses by some other method. I went to Chutzkaev, who was at the time the president of the Ekaterinburg City Soviet, in order to find out if he knew of any deep mineshafts nearer to Ekaterinburg. Com. Chutzkaev said that at 9 versts, on the Moskovsky highway, there were deep mineshafts. I decided that these mineshafts would be the better [place]. I took the automobile and set off. From Chutzkaev I set off to the Extraordinary Committee office where I caught up with Filipp again, and other comrades. Here [we] decided nevertheless to burn them. But since no one was familiar with this matter, [we] did not know how or what to do. Nonetheless still decided to burn them. I went to the Head of the Department of Supplies of the Ural National Economy, com. Voikov, and ordered three barrels of kerosene and three containers of sulfuric acid. Then, on horseback, [I] set off with com. Pavlushin to see how the matter stood at the place and where best to organize this. We went there [in] late evening. On the way, my horse fell and badly pressed down on my leg, I could not stand up. [After] lying for a few minutes [I] climbed on another [horse] and shuffled on somehow. We arrived at the place. I proposed that we bury them in different spots: first along the clay road – and hence traces [could be] easily covered, and secondly in the swamp. On that we with com. Pavlushin decided. Some set on fire, some to be buried. We returned to ISKOLPOM. I asked com. Pavlushin to ride off for this and that in connection with this. Pavlushin rode off, during this time I was (sic) with com. Voikov [to find out] about the kerosene and sulfuric acid, which was not easy to get. Shovels were needed, which the head  of Supplies did not have, but the yard keeper had a few shovels in the yard, which we took. Pavlushin was not back still. Waited for some time, [then] I went to the Extraordinary Committee. Turned out that Pavlushin was lying in bed. Next to him was a doctor. He fell off his horse and broke his leg, and could barely ride. Meanwhile, all the work related to the burnings was his responsibility, as a person who has, how can one say, some experience in more or less complicated procedures. But it was necessary to ‘perform’ [Translator’s comment: Yurovsky used the word prodelat’ or “trick” instead of prodelivat’] this, that this matter was not easy. I, using the position of comrade commissar of Justice of the Ural District, made out an order for the prison to bring me some horses and wagons without drivers. The wagons arrived at 12:30 at night. Receiving all the necessities, seating com. Pavlushin into the droshky, we set off. Around 4 [in the morning] we reached the place and started to unload the corpses. Koptyaki Village was located only 2 versts from where our mineshaft was. [We] needed to make this place safe. I sent persons into the village to say that they were prohibited from leaving the village, because an intelligence operation was taking place here now, possibly shooting will begin, and possibility of victims. Positioning the mounted riders, we continued our work. Exhuming the corpses was not an easy matter. By morning we were able to extract the corpses. We drove them closer to the road, and I decided to bury Nikolai and Alexei. We dug a rather deep pit. This was near 9 in the morning. Someone noticed that a peasant was riding over. Ermakov was here. This peasant turned out to be Ermakov’s acquaintance, Ermakov assured [us] that the peasant saw nothing, and he let him go. Many orders were given out, that under no circumstances was anyone who broke through forcefully [was] to be released alive. I checked if the peasant saw what happened here and it turned out that he undoubtedly could see and understand, [and] would gossip that something was happening here. I decided to take the corpses deeper into the forest, and once again headed to town, and decided to have a spare place, just in case. Not without difficulty I found an automobile, drove to Moskovsky highway, to those mineshafts which Chutzkaev spoke about the night before.  
About 1 ½ - 2 versts from the mineshafts, the automobile broke down. During the course of an hour or half hour (sic) the automobile was not able to be repaired. I decided to set off on foot to look at these mineshafts. At these mineshafts there were a few guards with their families. The mineshafts were rather deep, and I decided that this would be the very best place to bury Nikolai and his family – where no one would find them. Returning to the automobile, I saw that it was in the same position. Going to the city on foot would be impossible. I decided to stop the first horse or car I could get. At this time, a pair of horses [horsemen] drove (sic) by. I stopped them, "Well, friends, where are you going, I need your horses". "But permit us it's comrade Yurovsky". "Yes, comrade Yurovsky, and who are you." "Acquaintances". "Well here's how it is, fellows. It is essential for me to travel into town, but the car has broken down." "Yes we are in a hurry". "Well, a car will take you in, fellows". They agreed. On these horses I arrived into Ekaterinburg. Had to search for an automobile. The matter was not easy. But, my comrades were without rations for two days now. Had to bring them food at least. I went to the motor depot of the District Military Commissariat. There I found almost no one. There was no spare car. However, one young fellow, who evidently sensed or guessed, said, "Do you need a car (sic) truck, and so on. Good, I will give you one. But here is the thing. We only have Stogov's [car], it's very lightweight". "Fine, give [me] Stogov's, be it Stogov’s, what's the difference". General Stogov was the Chief of Military Communications: later he was executed for collaborating with the White guard. A truck with rations was sent out. Then sent a second truck. Commissioned that all corpses be loaded onto the wagons, and where it was possible to pass through freely so that it was possible to re-load [them] into the trucks, so that the people could eat, and so forth. Later I took off in the truck and in the lightweight car on one road, and on the other I sent out comrades in order to track which way would be most convenient to drive back, since I decided to transport the corpses in automobiles. I ordered to prepare rocks, ropes, so that by tying the rocks to the bodies [we could] lower [them] into the mineshafts. Crossing the railroad line, in about 2 versts I met up with the moving caravan with the corpses. At around 9-9 ½ o’clock in the evening, we crossed the railroad line where we decided to re-load onto the trucks. They assured me that the road here was good. However, there was a swamp on the way. For that reason we brought cross ties in order to spread over this place. Spread them down. Drove over successfully. In about ten paces from this place we got stuck again. Wasted no less than an hour. Got the truck out. Moved farther. Got stuck again. Wasted [time] until 4 in the morning. Nothing was accomplished. The time was late. One of the lightweight trucks with the other comrades and Com. Pavlushin also got stuck somewhere in the same. These people wasted a third day.  Exhausted. Without sleep. Began to get agitated: Any minute we expected the Czechoslovaks to seize Ekaterinburg. Had to find another way.
I decided to make use of the swamp. And burn some of the corpses. Unharnessed the horses. Unloaded the corpses. Opened the barrels. Placed one corpse to test how it would burn. The corpse charred relatively quickly, then I ordered to start burning Alexei. At this time [they were] digging a pit. The pit was dug in the swamp where the cross ties were layered. Dug a pit about 2 ½ arshins deep, three arshins square. It was just before morning. Burning the rest of the corpses was not possible because again the peasants began to come out for work, and for that reason we had to bury the corpses in the pit. Laying the corpses in the pit, doused them with sulfuric acid, with this ended the funeral for Nikolai and his family and all the rest. Laid the cross ties on top. Leveled it. Drove over it. Firm.
Near the spot where the corpses were burned, we dug a pit right there,  laid  the bones in there, lit the fire anew. And swept the traces.
After this difficult job by the third night, i.e. on the morning of 19 July ending the job, I addressed the comrades with the instructions about the importance of this job, and the necessity of complete secrecy until it becomes officially known. We headed to town. On the next day, on the orders of the Executive Committee I departed for Moscow with a report to the President of the All-Russian's Central Executive Committee, comrade Y.M. Sverdlov.
The initial burial spot, as pointed out earlier, was 16 versts from Ekaterinburg, and 2 versts from Koptyaki, the latter place is located approximately 8-8 ½ versts from Ekaterinburg, and 1 ½ versts approximately from the railroad line.
How they searched for me
On 26 June (sic), 1918, as soon as the Czechoslovaks seized Ekaterinburg, my apartment was pillaged, and my mother, an elderly 70-year old was arrested and sent into prison, in fact all her things were taken away from her up to the undergarments. She sat in prison for almost a year in one shirt, barefooted, and only by a timely chance [she] was not shot. Prior to the retreat of the whites, someone from medical personnel convinced her to go to the typhus barracks. They constantly demanded her to betray her son, i.e. me. They treated her barbarically: cursed with abusive profanities, or yelled: "Swine, giving birth to such a son". I of course never told my mother anything about my involvement in Nikolai's execution. And I did not tell her because she decidedly refused to leave Ekaterinburg, stating that she was old and that they will most likely not bother an old woman, and in any case, [she would] die soon anyway. And since by nature she was unable not to tell the truth she would not be able to talk her way out of it. But since she frankly knew nothing, only guessed, then to questions "Where is Nikolai's family. Where are they", she replied, "I only know about oven prongs, the poker and the kitchen, and so on, and know nothing more". But when they asked her whose side she was on, the Bolsheviks’ or the Whites’, she would answer, "I am for my son".  When one day they pointed out to her that it was useless to resist, that it would pay to tell everything and she will be free, otherwise she will be shot for refusing to speak– and right here added [your] son was already in our hands. She answered, "Well, and I am in your hands too, do with me what you yearn for…" Curses and threats anew.
Of the comrades who sat in prison not many of those [who] remained (since it is known that before the retreat of the Whites, under pressure from the approaching Red Army, there were 600 people brought out from the Ekaterinburg prison, of whom 30 saved themselves through mass escape, the rest were shot [like] beasts), among whom was the now deceased Sima Deryabina, the living: Olga Danilovna Lobkova (now Sosnovskaya), Anya Lirman and many other names which I don't remember. They used to call my mother “grandmother of the workers' revolution” because of her  permanently happy and kind personality. Often, during oppressive minutes (sic) she was reproached that she was singing songs, she would reply, "But why be quiet [Translator’s comment: imprecise word here used by Yurovsky]". But nonetheless (sic) the barbaric conditions maintained at the prison tore her strength and 6 months after being released from prison she passed away from heart failure. During that time she was ardently involved in (sic) ‘subbotniks’, and was full of life even though she was 71 years old. My task here is not to write my mother's biography in general, or [specifically] during that period of the revolution, but I could not deny myself from saying a few words about my ardently beloved mother with her constantly lively character, who bore much suffering during her long life, and [especially] in the final years, because of me.  
In Tomsk, around November of 1918, my two brothers were arrested, [along with my] brother’s wife and also a few more people who happened to be in my brother Leonti's apartment during the time of the arrest. The second brother, Ilya, came to Tomsk to be treated [for an illness] and instead of professors happened to end up in the hands of the white guard. Leonti told me the following. Once the entire block, where he lived was surrounded by a whole regiment of soldiers. Officers and soldiers entered his apartment (my brother the watchmaker was sitting at his bench, working), an officer asked: "Your surname". He answered, "Yurovsky". Looking at him the officer exclaimed, "He is wanted” Everyone was informed that he was under arrest, and they demanded from my brother to immediately hand over the jewelry box with the valuables taken from the tsar. To his reply that this must be some mistake, curses flowed and threats with shouts of "tsar-killers". Immediately everyone was tied up, (they) began to ransack the apartment, breaking up the floors with bayonets, upturn ovens, walls, but of course found nothing. This shameless officer’s white guard did not pay attention to the almost destitute surroundings, to the ragged children.  [They] were convinced that specifically the imperial valuables were here and that specifically here were the tsar-killers, for who they were thoroughly searching in their fury. All were transported to Tomsk, shackled in hand and leg irons. There they were for some time. [Then] sent them to Irkutsk. Then to Chita. Later again to Irkutsk. And so, for a period of 8 months they held them under the threat of being shot. Evidently they detained them, without shooting them in the hope to create a legal action. But the Red Army which liberated Siberia liberated them.
In the interest of clarifying this fact, I considered it necessary now to lay out in detail the story of the execution of the former tsar Nikolai, his family and those close to them who did not wish to leave the tsarist family despite the offer by the ISPOLKOM.
The white guard, the Kolchak and other press, and by that extent the one abroad write up this fact in a completely perverted form (yes they could not have had all the facts).
They tried to present us as robbers and executioners. In the meantime, the magnanimity of the proletariat presents an example which knows no boundaries. Examples of brutality by the white guard are endless: 26 commissars executed barbarically in Georgia, com. Radek by the “scheidemanovtsi” [Translator’s comment: Old bolshevik term used after the German right wing leader F. Scheidemann whom was claimed to have interfered with the revolutionary movement during 1919], on an iron chain in some thieves’ den, and etc and so on.
One must consider Nikolai's crimes: how much of workers' and peasants' blood, not only his subjects', but also of foreign workers', was drunk by this universal gendarme-bloodsucker. And now what: he still lives in Tobolsk in the regal lifestyle, and only in Ekaterinburg he converted into the position of an average bourgeoisie.  He has four servants, occupies 6 rooms. The tsarist daughters were never insulted. Compare the behavior of the tsarist executioners, of the educated white guards who pretend to be civilized, in relation to us – to the workers and peasants, and the Red Army soldiers.  
The insurrection of the proletariat, beaten down by need, illiterate, having the full opportunity and full right to vent their centuries-long anger against those villains [who were now] in their hands.
And yet what beauty: those who revolted to liberate humanity, even in dealings with their irate enemies showed incomparable magnanimity not insulting [them], not diminishing [their] human dignity, not forcing the people to suffer unnecessarily - [people] who had to die because historical circumstances demanded it.  
These People strictly performed [their] difficult revolutionary duty - those to be executed learned their fate just two minutes before [their] death.
The talk that the tsar and his family had to be shot by foreigners – the Letts, that somehow Russian workers and peasants could not have done the, this is all nonsense, which only foolish and desperate monarchists would believe.
The fact of expediting the execution of the family was provoked not by us, but because of the approaching contra-revolutionaries, and particularly because of the extraordinary "care" about the destiny of Nikolai on the part of his close haughty relatives and attendees. That it was timely is proven by the fact that neither in Ekaterinburg, nor in other areas within the limits of the R. S. F. S. R. [Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic] within its preceding borders, and in other territories of Russia, did this execution generate objections or protests from the poor.
This means that the elimination of the autocracy - and in particular of Nikolai and his family, in the conscience of the people was so ripe, that it was probably done later than it should have been in the path of the revolution.
Here it must be remembered about the letter I received in 1919 (after the recapture of Ekaterinburg by us) from a group of peasants from the village of Koptyaki, undersigned "well wishers", warning me of the threatening dangers from the side of some incorrigible blind followers of the bloody tsar.
Just how much our decision was the right one at the moment was testified by the fact that we had to hold back the pressure from the Ural workers who felt that it was necessary to get rid as soon as possible of the rubbish which no one needed, the rubbish which could play an angry role in the adverse conditions during the battle to strengthen the power of the workers.
The justice of the Revolution was the verdict of the people.
The events and the circumstances of the battle threw overboard the need for the organization of a trial for Nikolai and for the publicity of his execution.
To the People, it was all too clear…
 
Yakov Yurovsky
April-May 1922
Moscow

Rasputin's letter to the Czar days before his murder. 

In December 1916 Grigory Rasputin sent a letter to Nicholas II about his own death: 

“I feel that I shall leave life before January 1st. I wish to make known to the Russian people, to Papa (the Tsar), to the Russian Mother (the Tsarina) and to the Children what they must understand. If I am killed by common assassins, and especially by my brothers the Russian peasants, you, the Tsar of Russia, will have nothing to fear for your children, they will reign for hundreds of years. But if I am murdered by boyars, nobles, and if they shed my blood, their hands will remain soiled with my blood for twenty-five years and they will leave Russia. Brothers will kill brothers, and they will kill each other and hate each other, and for twenty-five years there will be no peace in the country. “The Tsar of the land of Russia, if you hear the sound of the bell which will tell you that Grigory has been killed, you must know this: if it was your relations who have wrought my death, then none of your children will remain alive for more than two years. And if they do, they will beg for death as they will see the defeat of Russia, see the Antichrist coming, plague, poverty, destroyed churches, and desecrated sanctuaries where everyone is dead”.
The Russian Tsar, you will be killed by the Russian people and the people will be cursed and will serve as the devil’s weapon killing each other everywhere. Three times for 25 years they will destroy the Russian people and the orthodox faith and the Russian land will die. I shall be killed. I am no longer among the living. Pray, pray, be strong, and think of your blessed family. ”



\



The Yusupov Palace St. Petersburg Russia and the death basement room where Rasputin was fed cyanide pastries and poison. The model of gun which is believed to have shot Rasputin the ENGLISH Webley 455 Revolver






Blood and footprints were tracked through the Yusupov Courtyard. Rayner probably shot Rasputin twice once in the side as he fled and a coup de grace when he fell. He was immediately loaded in a vehicle and taken to the bridge where his body was dumped in the Neva River. 



Rasputin's body was dumped from this bridge and his frozen body pulled from the Neva River a short distance away, after Oswald Rayner and Yusupov murdered him.



                             


 













"The bell rang, announcing the arrival of Dmitrii Pavlovich Romanov and my other friends. I showed them into the dining room and they stood for a little while, silently examining the spot where Rasputin was to meet his end. I took from the ebony cabinet a box containing the poison and laid it on the table. Dr Lazovert put on rubber gloves and ground the cyanide of potassium crystals to powder. Then, lifting the top of each cake, he sprinkled the inside with a dose of poison, which, according to him, was sufficient to kill several men instantly. There was an impressive silence. We all followed the doctor's movements with emotion. There remained the glasses into which cyanide was to be poured. It was decided to do this at the last moment so that the poison should not evaporate and lose its potency. We had to give the impression of having just finished supper for I had warned Rasputin that when we had guests we took our meals in the basement and that I sometimes stayed there alone to read or work while my friends went upstairs to smoke in my study." Prince Felix Yusupov "Lost Splendor" (1953)

"We sat down at the round tea table and Yusupov invited us to drink a glass of tea and to try the cakes before they had been doctored. The quarter of an hour which we spent at the table seemed like an eternity to me.... Once we finished our tea, we tried to give the table the appearance of having been suddenly left by a large group frightened by the arrival of an unexpected guest. We poured a little tea into each of the cups, left bits of cake and pirozhki on the plates, and scattered some crumbs among several of the crumpled table napkins.... Once we had given the table the necessary appearance, we got to work on the two plates of petits fours. Yusupov gave Dr Lazovert several pieces of the potassium cyanide and he put on the gloves which Yusupov had procured and began to grate poison into a plate with a knife. Then picking out all the cakes with pink cream (there were only two varieties, pink and chocolate), he lifted off the top halves and put a good quantity of poison in each one, and then replaced the tops to make them look right. When the pink cakes were ready, we placed them on the plates with the brown chocolate ones. Then, we cut up two of the pink ones and, making them look as if they had been bitten into, we put these on different plates around the table." 
Vladimir Purishkevich "The Murder of Rusputin" (1918)


Felix Yusupov added: "It was agreed that when I went to fetch Rasputin, Dmitrii, Purishkevich and Sukhotin would go upstairs and play the gramophone, choosing lively tunes. I wanted to keep Rasputin in a good humour and remove any distrust that might be lurking in his mind." Stanislaus de Lazovert now went to fetch Rasputin in the car. "At midnight the associates of the Prince concealed themselves while I entered the car and drove to the home of the monk. He admitted me in person. Rasputin was in a gay mood. We drove rapidly to the home of the Prince and descended to the library, lighted only by a blazing log in the huge chimney-place. A small table was spread with cakes and rare wines - three kinds of the wine were poisoned and so were the cakes. The monk threw himself into a chair, his humour expanding with the warmth of the room. He told of his successes, his plots, of the imminent success of the German arms and that the Kaiser would soon be seen in Petrograd. At a proper moment he was offered the wine and the cakes. He drank the wine and devoured the cakes. Hours slipped by, but there was no sign that the poison had taken effect. The monk was even merrier than before. We were seized with an insane dread that this man was inviolable, that he was superhuman, that he couldn't be killed. It was a frightful sensation. He glared at us with his black, black eyes as though he read our minds and would fool us."

Vladimir Purishkevich later recalled that Felix Yusupov joined them upstairs and exclaimed: "It is impossible. Just imagine, he drank two glasses filled with poison, ate several pink cakes and, as you can see, nothing has happened, absolutely nothing, and that was at least fifteen minutes ago! I cannot think what we can do... He is now sitting gloomily on the divan and the only effect that I can see of the poison is that he is constantly belching and that he dribbles a bit. Gentlemen, what do you advise that I do?" Eventually it was decided that Yusupov should go down and shoot Rasputin.

According to Yusupov's account: "Rasputin stood before me motionless, his head bent and his eyes on the crucifix. I slowly raised the crucifix. I slowly raised the revolver. Where should I aim, at the temple or at the heart? A shudder swept over me; my arm grew rigid, I aimed at his heart and pulled the trigger. Rasputin gave a wild scream and crumpled up on the bearskin. For a moment I was appalled to discover how easy it was to kill a man. A flick of a finger and what had been a living, breathing man only a second before, now lay on the floor like a broken doll."

Stanislaus de Lazovert agrees with this account except that he was uncertain who fired the shot: "With a frightful scream Rasputin whirled and fell, face down, on the floor. The others came bounding over to him and stood over his prostrate, writhing body. We left the room to let him die alone, and to plan for his removal and obliteration. Suddenly we heard a strange and unearthly sound behind the huge door that led into the library. The door was slowly pushed open, and there was Rasputin on his hands and knees, the bloody froth gushing from his mouth, his terrible eyes bulging from their sockets. With an amazing strength he sprang toward the door that led into the gardens, wrenched it open and passed out." Lazovert added that it was Vladimir Purishkevich who fired the next shot: "As he seemed to be disappearing in the darkness, Purishkevich, who had been standing by, reached over and picked up an American-made automatic revolver and fired two shots swiftly into his retreating figure. We heard him fall with a groan, and later when we approached the body he was very still and cold and - dead."

Felix Yusupov later recalled: "On hearing the shot my friends rushed in. Rasputin lay on his back. His features twitched in nervous spasms; his hands were clenched, his eyes closed. A bloodstain was spreading on his silk blouse. A few minutes later all movement ceased. We bent over his body to examine it. The doctor declared that the bullet had struck him in the region of the heart. There was no possibility of doubt: Rasputin was dead. We turned off the light and went up to my room, after locking the basement door."

The Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich Romanov drove the men to Varshavsky Rail Terminal where they burned Rasputin's clothes. "It was very late and the grand duke evidently feared that great speed would attract the suspicion of the police." They also collected weights and chains and returned to Yuspov's home. At 4.50 a.m. Dimitri drove the men and Rasputin's body to Petrovskii Bridge. that crossed towards Krestovsky Island. According to Vladimir Purishkevich: "We dragged Rasputin's corpse into the grand duke's car." Purishkevich claimed he drove very slowly: "It was very late and the grand duke evidently feared that great speed would attract the suspicion of the police." Stanislaus de Lazovert takes up the story when they arrived at Petrovskii: "We bundled him up in a sheet and carried him to the river's edge. Ice had formed, but we broke it and threw him in. The next day search was made for Rasputin, but no trace was found."

Rasputin's body was found on 19th December by a river policeman who was walking on the ice. He noticed a fur coat trapped beneath, approximately 65 metres from the bridge. The ice was cut open and Rasputin's frozen body discovered. The post mortem was held the following day. Major-General Popel carried out the investigation of the murder. By this time Dr. Stanislaus de Lazovert and Lieutenant Sergei Mikhailovich Sukhotin had fled from the city. He did interview Felix Yusupov, Dmitri Pavlovich Romanov and Vladimir Purishkevich, but he decided not to charge them with murder.

EVERY VERSION OF THAT NIGHT CONTAINED LIES TO PROTECT OSWALD RAYNER AND THE BRITISH SECRET SERVICE/MI6

Czar Nicholas II did not believe the story and told British ambassador, George Buchanan, that he knew that British MI6 agents were involved in the plot to kill Gregori Rasputin. Buchanan called Samuel Hoare in to tell him of the Czar's accusations. Hoare reacted angrily and described the story as "incredible to the point of childishness". Richard Cullen, who has examined the released MI6 files, argues in Rasputin (2010), that the assassination of Rasputin had been organized by three MI6 agents, John Scale, Oswald Rayner and Stephen Alley: "Rasputin's death was calculated, brutal, violent and slow and it was orchestrated by John Scale, Stephen Alley and Oswald Rayner through the close personal relationship that existed between Rayner and Yusupov."
 
The Romanovs buried him on a hill further down the path, they were planning a church and invalid hospital and home on the site. The Bolsheviks may have dumped the charred remains on the site of the current memorial, but this is the only photo of the incomplete memorial and grave.




Rasputin had been shot and beaten and water was found in his lungs, indicating drowning was what finally killed him. He had been shot in the side, blood was found in the snow covered courtyard of the Yusupov Palace. In Rasputin's forehead was a coup de grace wound. There is a debate whether the conspirators version is wholly accurate, but most people believe that the coup de grace shot to Rasputin was fired by MI6 Agent Oswald Rayner. As a footnote, there is a museum which claims to have Rasputin's penis, scrotum and nuts, which were kept as a trophy by his murderers. Too graphic to show, but such is the claim. Rasputin was know to commit acts of public indecency, displaying his penis and saying this rules Russia when he was drunk. Exactly the kind of things his enemies would use to justify his murder. If these men kept a souvenier, that is exactly the kind of grisly one they would choose. 





Rasputin with his children



A modern memorial on the site of Empress Alexandra's grave for Rasputin. The Bolsheviks dug up his body, burned it and spread the ashes nearby. 
 
The Secret Okhrana, Russian Secret Police Report from Alexander Palace Website

Russian State Papers and other documents relating to the years 1915-1918
Translated by A. L. Hynes
Imported into HTML by Rob Moshein

RASPUTIN AS KNOWN TO THE SECRET POLICE (OKHRANA)

EXTRACTS

From the data of the external surveillance over Gregory Rasputin from the 1st Jan., 1915, up to the 10th Feb., 1916.


I January. Rasputin has sent a telegram to Pokrovskoe [his native village] addressed to the elder of the village:

"I have secured the wood free of cost; it is to be carried away when permission to fell has been granted."

10 January. ShapovaIenkova [a doctor's wife] has presented him with a carpet. He has dispatched a telegram: "Tsarskoe-Selo, Palace Hospital. Anna Alexandrovna Vyroubova. Although I was not present in the body, in spirit I rejoiced with you. My feelings are the feelings of God. I send an angel to console and calm you. Call in a doctor."

12 January. Rasputin has received a petition to His Majesty from a peasant of the government of Saratov, called Gavrill Panteleiev Shishkin, with an "appeal for remission (he has been convicted to imprisonment in a fortress on account of his connection with some sect); and another from a peasant of the government of Tambov called Alexander Ossipov Sleptzov, also appealing for pardon. The latter has been convicted for forgery of cheques.

Rasputin charged them 250 roubles for his trouble.

17 January. Rasputin spent fifty minutes in the public baths, in No-3, 4th Rogdestvenskaia Street, but whether he went there alone or with someone has not been ascertained.

18 January. The peasant Avgust Kornilovitch, an employee of Councilor of State Ginsburg [contractor for coal to the fleet] brought Rasputin 1,000 roubles, forwhich he took a receipt in the delivery book.

26 January. Simanovitch [a merchant] has brought Rasputin several bottles of wine. Rasputin gave a dance tonight in honour of some discharged prisoners. The entertainment was attended by the two Volynskys, Shapovalenkova, Maria Golovina and by four unknown men and six unknown women. One of the men carried a guitar. The party was very noisy, with singing, dancing and applause; it lasted till late into the night

28 January, Von Bock, accompanied by an unknown person, brought Rasputin acase of wine.

12 February. Rasputin was taken by an unknown woman into the house No. 15-17, Trotzkaia Street to Prince Andronikov [attached to the Ministry of Internal Affairs]. His departure was not observed, but at half past four in the morning he returned home in the company of six drunken men (one of whom was carrying a guitar). These people remained with him till six o'clock, singing and dancing. The following morning Rasputin received nobody, as he was asleep.

18 February. Rasputin has dispatched a telegram:

Tsarskoe-Selo. Vyroubova. Tell Korovina to be at your house at three to-morrow."

19 February. At 10.15 in the evening Rasputin came out of No. I, Spasskaia Street from the Solovievs [Soloviev - a Secretary of State], accompanied by two ladies and left for an unknown destination. He returned home alone at three o'clock at night.

21 February. Nicolai Alexeievitch Glazov visited Rasputin by car, bringing with him several bottles of wine; having been joined by Rasputin, they both drove to the Great Northern Hotel to see Terekhov-Miklashevskaia [a courtesan]. They stayed with her for one hour and fifty minutes.

10 March. Rasputin had a visit from Evgenia Karlovna Yegeva, who came to request his co-operation in her endeavours to obtain the contract for supplying the troops with underwear to the amount of two million roubles. At approximately one o'clock at night Rasputin received seven or eight men and women, led by Ensign Karpotiny a lad of nineteen, all of whom stayed till three o'clock. The whole company shouted, sang, danced, and stamped about; and, together with Rasputin, left in a drunken condition for an unknown destination.

11 March. At 10-15 in the morning Rasputin was overtaken by the watch in the Gorokhovaia Street and followed to No. 8, Poushkinskaia Street to the prostitute Tregoubova, and thence to the baths.

12 March. Alexeiev [a government clerk] has brought to Rasputin's flat one bottle of wine.

13 March. Miller presented Rasputin with a cap. At 6.50 in the afternoon Rasputin, accompanied by two ladies, set out for No-76, Ekaterinensky Canal to the Savelievs, where he stayed till five o'clock in the morning. He remained in bed all day in an exhausted condition.

14 March. Pogan has brought an ikon together with a collection-box, which latter he placed in the anteroom of the flat.

25 March. Rasputin has gone to Moscow.

26 March. In his absence Varvara Nishchenko came to solicit Rasputin's aid for the release of her uncle, Colonel Jiletzky, who has been called up from the reserve, for which assistance she promised to pay him 2,000 roubles.

30 March. Rasputin has returned. He has dispatched two telegrams to Moscow to-day: (I) "Great Gnezdnikovsk Lane No. 10 To Princess Tenishev. I rejoice in the revelation; am tortured by expectation. I kiss my darling." (2) Kozitzky Lane. Bakhroushin's House. To Djanoulove. Beautiful treasure, in spirit I am with you. Kisses."

3 April. Rasputin brought a woman with him, who spent the night in his flat.

9 April. At 9.45 in the evening Rasputin was followed to 18, Sadovaia Street to a graduate of the Moscow University, Alexei Frolov Filippov, formerly editor of the newspapers Money and The Bourse Gazette, where he was left at two o'clock. It was noticed that a gathering or feast was taking place in the house. Rasputin returned home at 6-30 in the morning.

15 April. Rasputin, accompanied by the monk Martian [a bosom friend], visited No. 45 on the Ligovka, the residence of the burgess, Vassily Evgenievitch Pestrikov. In the absence of the latter, they with young Pestrikov and another unknown student arranged a jollification. Some one played the piano; they sang, while Rasputin danced with Pestrikov's parlour-maid.

25 April. Rasputin has sent a telegram to the bishop of Tobolsk, Varnava Saw the Chief [the Procurator of the Synod]; refuses owing to the war. He was pleasant, but would not listen to our business."

26 April. At approximately ten o'clock in the evening a number of unknown men and women (ten or twelve) began to gather at Rasputin's flat. Among them were: Alexeiev Lissenko, and Rubinstein with a woman. Sounds of playing on a guitar and of dancing were heard; someone was being applauded. The party broke up at two o'clock.

27 April. Rumour says that Rasputin was sent for from Tsarskoe-Selo, but as he had not yet recovered from the night before, Volynsky and Baroness Koussova advised him against going, telling him "that he would ruin every-thing." The watch overheard them discussing him among themselves: "Our staretz [holy man] is indulging himself too much these days." Finally they persuaded him to rest for another two hours, and gave orders not to have him disturbed.

9 May. Rasputin sent the porter's wife to make an appointment with a masseuse, but she refused to receive him, whereupon Rasputin went to the eighteen-year-old seamstress, Katia, who lives in the same block of houses. "Why do you not come to see me he asked her. She told him that she had no clothes. Come to me in a week's time, I will give you fifty roubles," was his reply.

12 May. Rasputin dispatched a telegram to Sabler

Dear, beloved, yesterday we had a conversation there with Mamma [the Empress]; we found that it was not so easy to disturb our Master. They hope to arrest the matter."

Rasputin brought a prostitute to his flat and locked her up in a room; later in the day she was set free by the servant.

13 May. Rasputin sent a telegram to the governor of Tobolsk: "A suspicious man has been living at Pokrovskoe for the last three weeks, he sometimes professes to have come from Moscow, sometimes from elsewhere. Address reply Tsarskoe-Selo, Vyroubova."

14 May. At five o'clock in the evening Rasputin went to No. I5, Malaia Dvorianskaia Street to Belkovsky and Tsezareva. At ten o'clock the watch observed the following scene: one of the women present, having crossed the lighted reception-room, went into Belkovsky's bedroom, which was in darkness. A few minutes later she reappeared in a great state of excitement. Hereupon it was noticed that Rasputin, who seems to have heard the turmoil, ran out of the dark room into the hall, snatched his hat and coat and, without putting them on, made for the street. Two men followed him a few paces behind and one of them was heard to say "There he runs," afterwhich they went back into the house. Rasputin in the meantime jumped into a cab and drove standing to the Liteiny Prospect, keeping a sharp look out in order to ascertain whether he was being followed. He stopped the cab in the middle ofthe street, so as to allow all the traffic behind him to pass, then, having regained confidence, returned home.

18 May. The engineer Mendel-Neuman has requested Rasputin to intercede with His Majesty on behalf of a man sentenced to imprisonment in a fortress for, a period of eight months for evasion of military service and attempted bribery. Pogan acted as intermediary.

19 May. Rasputin told Neuman that his petition had been forwarded to "Him." Dlin, alias Dolina, has appealed to Rasputin to arrange for the naturalisation of the merchant Mandl.

26 May. Rasputin and the prostitute Tregoubova came home in Manus' car in an inebriated condition. While saying good-bye, he kissed and fondled Tregoubova passionately. Later he sent the porter's wife to fetch the dressmaker Katia, but she was not at home.

1 June. Rasputin has sent two telegrams to Pokrovskoe:

(i) "Novykh [his wife]. I am full of sorrow, longing to get home. A misfortune has befallen Annoushka; she will have to undergo an operation, I cannot get away. How are you? Kisses." (2) To the same village, addressed to Shestakov, the head of the combined post and telegraph offices. "Give them two thousand of your own; I shall make them good in three weeks' time."

2 June. At one o'clock in the morning Rasputin came home drunk in the company of Manus [a financier] and Kouzminsky [a Lieutenant in the Gvardeisky Equipage]; without going up to his flat, he sent the porter's wife for the masseuse Outina, who lives in the same house, but she could not be found. Then he went himself to flat No. 3 to see the dressmaker Katia. Here he was apparently not allowed to enter, as be came back directly and on the stairs assaulted the porter's wife, asking for kisses. The woman managed to disengage herself and ring up his flat, whereupon Dounia, Rasputin's maid, led him away.

14 June. Dobrovolsky [a Councillor] has presented Rasputin with a number of bottles of wine, which were later taken to No. 18 Sadovaia Street to Filippov.

15 June. Rasputin has left for his native village, Pokrovskoe. On his way Rasputin spent twenty-four hours in Tiumen, in the monastery of which his friend Martian is Father Superior. The latter gave a dinner in his honour, which was attended by several laymen with their wives. Rasputin was distinctly the worse for drink. According to Father Martian's words, Rasputin alone drank about two quarts of monastery wine.

20 June. Rasputin, accompanied by Martian, Patoushinskaia, and Dounia, went to see Striapchev, a man who lives in Tiumen. They drove horses belonging to the monastery and carried with them a packet of fresh cucumbers and half a vedro of wine.

24 June. Rasputin received some visitors in his house at Pokrovskoe, during which time he played the gramophone, danced and sang incoherent songs. He told his followers that he had saved from punishment 300 Baptists, who had agreed to pay him one thousand roubles a head, but that so far he had received only five thousand roubles. He also informed them that during his last audience with the Emperor he had succeeded in persuading him to postpone the calling up of the men of the 2nd Category till the autumn, i.e., till after harvest-time. On the occasion when the governor of Tobolsk was passing through Pokrovskoe, Rasputin came to the mooring-station and requested him to remit the fine of fifty roubles, which had been imposed on a peasant of the village for erecting a building on unauthorised ground.

25 June. Rasputin told the agents, while walking with them round the village, that he was beloved by three ministers: Goremykin [President of the Council], and Prince Shakhovskoy [Minister of Trade]; the third he declined to name. He said also that he was well acquainted with the Grand Duke Nicolai Nicolaievitch, and that in 1905 the Grand Duke would have granted Russia a constitution, had the times been ripe for it.

26 June. One of Rasputin's neighbours was much questioned about him by an unknown woman, who asked to be allowed to spend the night in her house. Natalia, however, would not give her permission and told Rasputin about the episode the next morning... He immediately dispatched the village policeman in search of this woman, but no trace of her could be found. Rasputin was very much alarmed and spent a long time recalling to his mind all his women acquaintances.

27 June. Rasputin received a telegram from Tsarskoe Selo: "I am unhappy and bored. Have written. Bless me. Anna."

29 June. He dispatched a telegram to Vyroubova; its contents are not known.

30 June. The Bishop of Tobolsk, Varnava, and Father Martian paid Rasputin a call; they came from Tiumen by cab. Father Martian brought two half-barrels of wine.

Part Two: July 1915 - February 1916
1 July. An unknown Jew came by steamer to-day from Tiumen to visit Rasputin. He seems to be a manufacturer, living at Perm. He stayed for forty minutes.

4 July. Rasputin was again visited by Father Martian, who, accompanied by Rasputin's wife and Dounia, embarked the same day on his way back to Tiumen.

5 July. Rasputin went down to the landing-stage to meet an unknown woman, who came from Tiumen. He spoke to her for twenty minutes, after which the woman left for Tobolsk. The same day he was visited by two other women, also from Tiumen, who apparently saw him for the first time. He dispatched two telegrams:

Tsarskoe-Selo. Vyroubova. "How are you? Kisses," and to Petrograd; 17 Poushkinskaia,to Dobrovolsky: "Let me know who left on the third."

7 July. The Deacon of the village, Kovrigki, paid Rasputin a visit; he kissed Rasputin's hand deferentially. At eight o'clock in the evening Elizaveta Petrovna Solovieva arrived from Petrograd and with her Rasputin's wife and Dounia from Tiumen.

9 July. Rasputin received Father Sergey, the newly appointed priest of Pokrovskoe, who also kissed his hands. At eight o'clock in the evening Rasputin left his house,very red in the face, apparently in a slightly inebriated condition, in the company of Solovieva. They mounted a carriage and drove to a distant wood. They came backin an hour's time, Rasputin looking very pale.

11 July. The wife of an officer, Patoushinskaia, came from Yaloutorovsk to see Rasputin. Shortly, afterwards Solovieva and Patoushinskaia emerged from the house, leading Rasputin between them, all three interlocked, Rasputin holding Patoushinskaia by the lower part of the body. They played the gramophone throughout the greater part of the day, Rasputin being exceedingly gay, and consuming large quantities of wine and beer.

12 July. Solovieva has been recalled to Petrograd by her husband. Rasputin was seen walking up and down his yard, holding Patoushinskaia, in his arms.

13 July. After having bathed, Rasputin went to the wife of the local psalm-reader, Yermolai. They had apparently made an appointment, as she was waiting for him at the window. He visits her practically each day with intentions of an intimate nature. On this occasion he stayed with her for half an hour. Patoushinskaia has gone back to Yaloutorovsk, having been recalled by her husband. She took passionate leave of Rasputin covering his face, hands and beard with kisses.

14 July. Rasputin has gone to Tobolsk to see Varnava the agents were left behind.

15 July. Dobrovolsky and Avchoukhova who is now his wife, have come to stay with Rasputin.

17 July. Rasputin has returned from Tobolsk. After lunch Dobrovolskaia played the piano, while the rest of the company sang in chorus. Rasputin clapped his hands and stamped his feet; later he walked about with his arms round Dobrovolskaia, without being in the least perturbed by his daughters' presence. The remainder of the day was spent in the fields, where they played ball, sang and ran races.

20 July. Rasputin, accompanied by Dobrovolsky and the latter's wife, paid a visit to Arapov. He left his host's house in a drunken condition and immediately repaired to the psalmreader's wife. On his return home at 5.40 in the afternoon he once more set out in spite of Dounia's endeavours to prevent him... He rudely pushed her aside, telling her "to go to the devil," and, drunk as he was, splashed through the mud without picking his way. While walking along with the agents he discoursed on the war: "Last year, when I was lying in hospital, rumours were beginning to spread of the coming war; I begged the Tsar not to fight. I sent him about twenty telegrams of warning, one a very earnest one, for which I was told I was to be brought up for trial. When, however, the Tsar was informed of this, he said Our domestic affairs are not subject to the law." He discussed also the newly-ordained priest, Father Sergey. The topic was brought up by a chance remark about the religious procession and the Te Deum with the Blessing of the Waters, which had been arranged for the 20th of July and for the purpose of which four buckets of water had been, put ready. On seeing the four buckets of water,the priest declared that he would not read four Te Deums, one for each bucket. A few daring spirits among the congregation suggested that one Te Deum would suffice for the four buckets. When the service was over, Father Sergey would not allow the parishioners to kiss the cross, saying that they could do so after mass. This arbitrary treatment roused the people's indignation, and the priest was finally compelled to concede their rights. It seems that Father Sergey is very imperfectly acquainted with the rites of the church; there is even a rumour that he comes from a Moscow family of merchants and is a nominee of Skvortzov, the editor ofthe magazine Kolokol [The Bell]. In conclusion Rasputin said: "I don't know what to do with Father Sergey." Rasputin receives many telegrams and letters and sendsa great number himself. He no longer gives them to the agents to post.

21 July. Rasputin, Dobrovolsky and wife, Deacon Yermolai and wife and his two daughters have gone by steamer to Tiumen and thence to Yaloutorovsk to see the Patoushinskys.

22 July. Patoushinskaia met them at the station in a carriage drawn by a pai rof her own horses. She placed Rasputin next to herself and made arrangements forthe others in hired cabs. Her husband met them at the flat. At eight o'clock in the evening Patoushinskaia, Dobrovolsky with his wife and Rasputin's daughters went for a walk in the streets. At approximately ten o'clock (this had apparently been arranged beforehand) Rasputin was seen to jump out of a window on to the veranda, where he was met by Patoushinskaia, who had come out of the back door. They both disappeared into the darkness.

23 July. Dobrovolsky and his wife have left for Petrograd. At noon Rasputin, accompanied by his daughters and Patoushinskaia, went into the wood, which encroached upon the outskirts of the town. The watch observed them near the house half an hour later. Rasputin's daughters went indoors, while he himself took Patoushinskaiain to an empty building at the back of the garden, where they stayed for twenty minutes. According to Patoushinskaia's maid, this house was in the old days inhabited by some of the exiled Dekabrists [Decembrists].

24 July. Rasputin and his daughters have departed to Tiumen, where he left them on the landing-stage and went to see Father Martian. After the lapse of two and a half hours he reappeared carrying a basket, which to all appearance contained bottles of wine. He went down to the wharf alone and took the next steamer backto Pokrovskoe.

27 July. Rasputin and his son drove to the Tiumen railway station, whence he departed for Petrograd. During the journey he and his son dined at one of the wayside stations, sharing a plate between them. Rasputin took the cabbage out of the soup with his fingers and, having placed it in the spoon, conveyed it to his mouth.

31 July. At half-past ten they arrived at Petrograd. He was met at the station by Privy Councillor Nicolai Vassilicvitch Soloviev, whose wife had visited Rasputinat Pokrovskoe. They took a cab and drove to Soloviev's residence on the Gorokhovaia, No. 69. 2 August. Rasputin has dispatched two telegrams.

"Yaloutorovsk. Patoushinsky. We shall soon meet again. Kisses," and to "Pokrovskoe, Government of Tobolsk. Novykh. I shall soon be back. Kisses."

5 August. Rasputin is on his way back to Pokrovskoe. He was seen off by Tatiana Shakhovskaia [Princess Shakhovsky], Baroness Koussova, Miller and Dobrovolsky and his wife, while Vyroubova and von Pistolkors brought him to the station in their car, but did not come on to the platform. During the journey he made the acquaintance of three unknown ladies, who left the train at Kamyshlov. They were met by some staff officers, to whom the ladies pointed out Rasputin. In their conversation they mentioned Gouseva's attempt on Rasputin and said something about a hospital. Having heard the ladies out, a Lieutenant-Colonel who was present turned to another field officer with the words "You see if they had gone with him a little further, the mother would have lost the daughter or vice versa. There is no denying the fact that this individual has hypnotic powers." Before reaching the station at Boui, Rasputin came over to the carriage occupied by the agents who were travelling with him, and began to talk about the war. In his opinion it was progressing very unfavourably and a drastic change was imminent at Petrograd. "Soloviev has been subjected to a very disagreeable reprimand from Samarin for meeting me at Petrograd on the 31st of July. But Samarin will not be Chief Procurator of the Synod for much longer." While speaking, Rasputin was staring hard at thea gents, and then suddenly asked: "Was it you who reported against Soloviev?" The agents replied: "That is not part of our business." "Then who could have done it? The Emperor questioned me in connection with this denunciation and suggested that detectives might have reported against Soloviev. I said to him 'I do not know; perhaps it was done by detectives.' I am going home now, I do not know myself for how long; perhaps for a week, perhaps for longer; it all depends." He finished by saying that he had been to the palace twice and that the Emperor had offered him a private carriage but that he "had refused" "Once, when I was returning from Tsarskoe-Selo to Petrograd about midnight, I saw a detective hiding from me behind a lift. 'I felt quite sorry for him; if I had succeeded in discovering his name,it would have gone badly with him."

9 August. At Tiumen, Rasputin paid Martian a call and later went to the landing-stage, where he booked a private cabin and embarked for Pokrovskoe at eleven o'clock. Two hours afterwards he emerged from his cabin, drunk, and joined some soldiers who were on board on their way from Tiumen to Tobolsk. (They were privates ofthe local company of the Convoy, numbering about ten men.) He entered into conversation with them, gave them a present of twenty-five roubles and ordered them to singto him. After having listened for a little while, he retired to his cabin, whence he emerged once more, bringing the soldiers another 100 roubles. The singing became louder. This time Rasputin joined in the chorus. At the end of an hour Rasputin took the whole lot of the soldiers into the 2nd class saloon, intending to treat them to a dinner, but the captain of the ship would not allow the lower ranks to stay in the 2nd-class apartments and ordered them out.

A little while later Rasputin joined the soldiers again, arranged them in a circle and, placing himself in the middle, conducted their singing with a great display of hilarity. Having given them another twenty-five roubles, he told the steward to provide them with a dinner at the cost of fifteen roubles. Then he disappeared into his cabin. A few minutes later he was heard to complain of the loss of 3,000 roubles. He was getting steadily more and more drunk, and shortly after dinner instigated a quarrel with a third-class passenger, Razoumovsky, who was travelling from Tiumen. The latter could hardly be restrained from giving Rasputin a thrashing, but fortunately matters were settled without violence. This incident was followed by an altercation with another Tiumen merchant, called Mikhailev. This time the quarrel began in the course of a conversation about the provocative actions of Bishop Varnava. Mikhailev ended the dispute by spitting on the floorand leaving Rasputin. Trouble, however, was not yet over. On meeting the steward, Rasputin accused him of stealing his 3,000 roubles and called him a thief. The steward requested some of the passengers to stand witness for him, and sent acomplaint to the captain, who threatened to have the matter settled at Tobolsk by calling in the police. This episode over, Rasputin went back to his cabin,where he sat down with his head resting on the table. He lay there for a longtime, mumbling to himself, while the passengers on deck gazed at him with admiration. Some of them were heard to say: "Rasputin! long may you live, you holy man!" Others said: "He ought to be shaved or have his beard clipped." The porthole of the cabin was closed at the agents' request. An hour or two before the steamer's arrival at Pokrovskoe, Rasputin fell off the table on to the floor, where he stayed till the ship landed at eight o'clock in the evening. The agents had to ask the captain for two men to help them to remove Rasputin from the cabin, and with some difficulty they eventually succeeded in dragging him to the shore, where his two daughters, Katia and Dounia, were expecting him. He was hoisted on to a cart and taken home to Pokrovskoe in an unconscious condition.

10 August. At ten o'clock the following morning Rasputin came out of his house and began questioning the agents about yesterday's happenings, sighing and wondering at having got so drunk, since, according to his own words, he had had only three bottles of vodka. He repeated over and over again: "Ah, my dear fellows, that was an ugly business." Among other things he mentioned that Djounkovsky had been made to resign, expressing the fear that he was, perhaps, attributing his forced retirement to him, Rasputin; he disclaimed all knowledge of him, however, and professed to have had nothing to do with his dismissal. He further said: "Yourgovernor will soon be removed also," and to the question, whether he was referring to Count Adelberg, replied: "No, I don't know his name," and changed the conversation.

11 August. Varnava came to Pokrovskoe from Tobolsk, but left the same day for Tiumen.

15 August. Martian paid Rasputin a visit to-day.

18 August. Avgustin [the Archimandrite] came from Tobolsk, but departed the same day for Tiumen. Patoushinskaia has also visited Rasputin.

19 August. Rasputin went to see Deacon Yermolai, who immediately on his arrival left for the church. Rasputin stayed with the Deacon's wife for at least an hour. The priest, Father Nicolai, who had gone to Tobolsk to see Varnava, brought back the news, communicated to him by Varnava, that the governor intended to have Rasputin arrested and imprisoned for three months for objectionable behaviour and drunkenness, but that owing to Varnava's intercession, he had relented. Rasputin, on hearing this, spat vigorously on the ground, saying:

"What is the governor to me?"

6 September. During a walk with the agents Rasputin said to them "Yes, my dear fellows, my soul is aching with sorrow; I am quite numb with grief. Sometimes I feel better for an hour or two, but it does not last - all the sorrow comes back again." The agents asked: "Why do you feel like that" "Because, you simpletons, the country is in a bad way and because the cursed papers write about me, causing me much annoyance. I shall have to go to law."

9 September. When Rasputin went to see his brother Nicolai, who had at the time several other visitors in the house, their father made his appearance. The old man abused his son Grigory with the vilest expressions. Rasputin, in a savage fury, jumped up from the table where he was sitting, pushed his father into the yard, knocked him down and belaboured him with his fists, while the old man yelled: "How dare you, miscreant!" They were separated with difficulty. Examination proved that the father had received a large purple bruise, which completely closed his eye. Having recovered, the indomitable old man again attacked his son, abusing him worse than before; he threatened to tell everybody, that Grigory was an ignorant old fool, who only knew "how to fondle Dounia's [the maid's] soft parts." This time Rasputin had to be held down with force to prevent him from assaulting his father again. They were both exceedingly drunk.

Rasputin dispatched two telegrams, one to Tsarskoe Selo and one to the Stavka [General Headquarters].

Rasputin took to Tiumen his son, Dmitry, who, as a soldier of the 2nd Category, has been called up for active service. The wife of Staff Captain Patoushinsky came from Yaloutorovsk for the purpose of assisting Rasputin, and succeeded in entering Dmitry into the 7th Company of the Territorials. They all - including Rasputin's wife - put up at the monastry with Father Martian. The watch inferred from Rasputin's behaviour that he was anxious not to be seen in Tiumen; he said to the agent Terekhov: "I have no time to go about, although I have many friends here." But he stayed behind the monastery walls all day long, doing nothing. He walks with a slight limp, the result of having damaged his hip in his fight with old Rasputin.

12 September. Rasputin told the agents that he was anxious to go back to Petrograd, but that Vyroubova did not desire his presence.

19 September. Rasputin has received a typed letter, dated the 16th September,the contents of which were as follows:

"Grigory, our fatherland is in danger; there is talk of concluding a dishonourable peace. The fact that you receive from the Stavka [G.H.Q.] telegrams in cypher proves that you have great influence. Hence we, the chosen ones, ask you to arrange matters so that Ministers should be made responsible before the people and that the State Duma should be convened on the 23rd September of this year, in order that our country may be saved from ruin. If you do not comply with our order, we shall kill you; no mercy will be shown to you; our hand will not shrink as did the hand of Gouseva. Wherever you are, death will follow you. The die has been cast; the lot has fallen on us ten chosen men."

24 September. Rasputin left Pokrovskoe for Petrograd, where he arrived on the 28th of September.

11 October. Rasputin sent a telegram to Varnava

"Remove the spy. Pay the mental hospital at the rate of fifteen roubles, I shall repay Ivan Khlopov. The priests beg your forgiveness. What is necessary has been done."

14 October. Rasputin returned home at one o'clock at night completely drunk. He abused the porter's wife on the stairs for having accepted a bribe of twenty-eight roubles from some minister, He finished by saying: "He wanted to bury me, but,on the contrary, he will be buried before me."

22 October. At eight o'clock in the evening Rasputin was visited by an unknown lady, who, a few moments later, came out in a very agitated condition. The maid caught her up on the stairs, saying: "He wants you to speak to him; he feels lonely. "The lady, who looked greatly disconcerted, refused at first, saying that she would return to-morrow, but finally agreed to go back. She stayed till late.

24 October. Rasputin dispatched a telegram: "Ekaterinburg, Bishop Seraphim. I apologise for the trouble; had no success. Everybody is concerned with his own business. Grigory."

28 October. Rasputin has given Belianin a letter of recommendation to the Assistant Minister of Justice, Verevkin, who, however, refused to receive it, declaring that its subject-matter referred to a question which only the higher authorities could settle. Thereupon Rasputin promised Belianin his co-operation through Vyroubova. Belianin was appealing against the verdict of the court in connection with a fire which had destroyed the premises of his shop in Vladivostock.

31 October. A hired piano has been taken up to Rasputin's flat.

3 November. An unknown woman visited Rasputin with a view to soliciting his aid on behalf of her husband, an ensign, who was lying in one of the Petrograd hospitals. She wished him to be kept there. Coming down the stairs she told theporter's wife how strange she thought Rasputin and described her reception. "I was admitted by a girl, who took me into a room, where I waited for Rasputin. I had not met him before. The first thing he said to me was: 'Come with me; undress.'I took my clothes off and followed him through a door, leading into a room to the left. He paid scant attention to my petition, but plucked my face, then my breasts, mumbling all the time: 'Kiss me, I have taken a fancy to you.' When he had written the note I was asking him for, he began bothering me again: 'Kiss me, kiss me; I love you.' In the end he would not give me the note, saying: 'I am angry with you, come tomorrow.' " The agent Terekhov asked the lady whether she intended coming back, but she answered: "No; going to him for assistance means paying money in advance - anything he cares to name. Since I cannot do that, I shall not return."

5-6 November. Rasputin went by car to Tsarskoe-Selo and he returned, also by car, on the 6th at 10.15 in the morning with Vyroubova. While leaving the car, he made the sign of the cross over Vyroubova, who then drove away.

Later, Rasputin drove to an unknown destination, accompanied by Boberman [a merchant]. They came back at five o'clock, Rasputin being slightly inebriated. He took long and tender leave of Boberman at the door. On his way up to the flat he asked: "Has anybody been to see me?" He was told that two ladies had called. "Were they pretty? - Good; that is what I want." At approximately seven o'clock he left the house, hardly awake. He gave the porter's wife ten roubles on his way out, mumbling to himself something incoherent and banging with his stick.

10 November. Rasputin has dispatched agent Svistounov with a letter to the Minister of Internal Affairs.

14 November. Rasputin came home very drunk in the company of Tatiana Shakhovskaia. They left again directly. He came back at two o'clock at night completely overcom ewith drink.

I5 November. Rasputin's secretary, Simanovitch, has brought a basket containing six bottles of madeira, some caviar and cheese.

21 November. Rasputin brought home two bottles of wine.

22 November. Rasputin returned past eight o'clock in the morning after an absence of twenty-four hours.

23 November. Rasputin has been away since yesterday evening; he returned this morning at dawn, absolutely drunk.

24 November. An unknown lady came to the house; she questioned the porter's wife, as to when Rasputin was in the habit of going to Tsarskoe-Selo, how frequently he went to church and which was his favourite place of worship. She declined the woman's offer to go up to the flat, saying that she could see Rasputin in the church at Tsarskoe and said that her daughters went to school with those of Rasputin. On perceiving the agents on the stairs, she asked who they were and earnestly begged the porter's wife not to tell them of her inquiries.

25 November. Rasputin came home at five o'clock in the morning. The actress Varvarova spent the night 25-26 in his rooms.

29 November. Rasputin was absent from home the whole night.

1 December. Rasputin has dispatched a telegram:

Moscow, Malaia Dmitrovka 3, to Miklashevskaia, "Why is Korzinkina tarrying with the business?" Rasputin drove with Dolgoroukaia [Princess S. S. Dolgoroukaia] to the Hotel Astoria, where he stayed the whole night.

3 December. Rasputin left his flat in the company of Filippov and returned home drunk. Shortly after Leikart, nee Mordvina, paid him a call for the first time to ask his intercession on behalf of her husband. When, however, Rasputin asked her to kiss him, she left. She was followed by Senator Mamontov's mistress, Voskoboinikova, to whom Rasputin suggested that she should visit him at one o'clock at night.

5 December. Rasputin came home drunk at three o'clock in the morning.

7 December. He has again been absent the whole night.

8 December. Rubanovitch came to call for Rasputin in his car, and they both drove to the Restaurant Donon (Moika 24). Thence they sent the chauffeur to the Hotel Rossia to fetch Djanoulova and Filippova. After dinner was over, Rasputin accompanied these ladies to the Hotel Rossia, where they were staying.

12 December. Rasputin arrived home at 9.50 in the morning in the society of Varvarova. According to the cab driver they had come from the Alexeievskaia street. He had most probably spent the night with Varvarova.

14 December. At approximately two o'clock at night Rasputin was seen coming out of No. 11 Furstadtskaia Street, the residence of Svechina [wife of a Colonel in the General Staff], accompanied by Maria Markovna Yacininskaia, a woman of twenty-one years of age and the wife of a burgess who lives at No. 104 on the Moika. They went by car in the direction of Novaia Derevnia to the Villa Rode Restaurant, where, however, they were not admitted owing to the lateness of the hour. Determined to get in, Rasputin started banging on the door and pulling at the bell, having previously tipped the policeman on duty in order that he might not interfere with his roistering. Eventually they drove to No. 49 Novaia Derevnia to Massalsky's Gypsy Chorus, where they stayed till ten o'clock the next morning. They emerged, both fairly drunk, and went to Yasininskaia's flat, whence Rasputin departed at twelve o'clock. Towards the evening he left for Tsarskoe-Selo.

15 December. Rasputin went by car to the Villa Rode Restaurant, accompanied by Lieutenant-Colonel Yezersky, Varvarova, and two unknown women. The watch left them there at two o'clock at night.

17 December. Princess Dolgoroukaia sent a car for Rasputin to take him to the Hotel Astoria, where they occupied a private room. They were shortly after joined by the former governor of Petrograd, General Kleigels, who stayed with them for about two hours.

19 December. Rasputin left the house at approximately one o'clock at night in the company of an unknown official and a lady. He returned the next morning at six o'clock, alone.

20 December. Rasputin and Pitirim's secretary, the former keeper of the records in the office of the Exarch of Georgia, Ivan Zinovievitch Ossipenko, drove to No. 26a Pesochnaia Street to see the burgess Andrey Ippolitovich Knirsha, a young man of twenty-eight years of age, who is separated from his wife. The Villa Rode Restaurant was commissioned to supply two baskets of wine and a gypsy chorus. The watch observed through the windows that Rasputin was dancing. Two unknown men brought him home at seven o'clock in the morning, dead drunk.

24 December. I. Z. Ossipenko visited Rasputin at seven o'clock in the evening; an hour or so later a hired motor drove up to the house, bringing Princess Tatiana Feodorovna Shakhovskaia, the wife of Lieutenant von Pistolkors, and an unknown officer. Only Princess Shakhovskaia went up to the flat and emerged some ten minutes later with Rasputin and Ossipenko. They all settled into the car and drove off, apparently to the Alexandro-Nevsky Monastery. At 8-15 in the evening another car drove up, bringing the Countess Olga Erikovna Kreuz, and the daughter of Acting Secretary of State, Golovin. The latter went up to the flat, but reappeared directly with the peasant woman Akulina Nikitishna Laptinskaia. They in their turn made for the Alexander Nevsky Monastery and entered the Cathedral, where Rasputin was already installed. The watch could detect neither the ladies nor the officer who had come with him. After the service was over, Rasputin and Ossipenko repaired to the apartments of the Metropolitan, Pitirim, but their departure was not observed. Two ladies (the watch could not ascertain who they were, as they saw them only sideways) went to the detached building to the right of the Cathedral, where they were lost to view.

Rasputin returned home on the 25th of Decembcr at nine o'clock in the morning.

1916

1 January. Rasputin had visitors, who stayed till four o'clock in the morning; there was much singing.

2 January. Rasputin came home drunk at one o'clock at night. At two he had a call from an officer, who was accompanied by a lady. Bazilevskaia joined them later; they all stayed till four o'clock.

4 January. Rasputin and Ossipenko returned to the flat at about midnight. Ossipenko, left directly. At one o'clock arrived Elena Porphirievna Tourovitch, a gentlewoman by birth, owner of a private school for girls. She stayed for an hour.

5 January. Rasputin, Ossipenko, Dounia and Miller went by cab to Miller's flat on the Ligovka, 45. They took with them a basketful of wine. Rasputin was seen to come home at 2-30 at night in an inebriated condition.

6 January. Rasputin spent a hilarious day at home later he went with Ossipenko and [Princess] Evgenia Shakhovskaia all three in one cab to Prince Andronikov, whence he returned at three o'clock at night in the company of Ossipenko. The latter left at once.

8 January. Rasputin called at No. 6 Gagarinskaia Street (Nordman). He came home at three o'clock at night followed by two ladies. Having stayed with him for two hours, the ladies left.

9 January. Ginsburg has sent Rasputin ten bottles of champagne; many unknown persons have taken the opportunity of Rasputin's namesday to present him with gifts. A sofa, two dozens of chairs, baskets full of delicacies and wine were among the things sent to him.

10 January. Klionovsky [a Secretary of State] and Tourovich have brought more wine to-day. Gil [a captain's wife] spent the night of 10-11 in Rasputin's flat. To-day, being Rasputin's namesday, he was visited by many people, all of whom brought presents for him. Those of the visitors who stayed spent the evening dancing, singing and playing the gramophone, the guitar and the balalaika; part of the time was given up to prayers and to the singing of hymns. The guests left at two o'clock.

11 January. Rasputin used the telephone in the Soloviev's flat to speak to Tsarskoe-Selo. His own is out of order.

13 January. Rasputin, Ivanitzkaia, an unknown officer and two ladies visited house No. 63 on the Ligovskaia, the residence of Alexandra Romanovna, widow of Secretary of State Mitinsky. They stayed from two till five in the afternoon, after which time Rasputin returned to his flat, bringing Ivanitzkaia and the unknown officer with him. Later they left, both a little the worse for drink, Ivanitzkaia being dressed in Rasputin's overcoat. Rasputin has dispatched a telegram to Tsarskoe-Selo, addressed to Vyroubova, in the following terms: "God Himself keeps him in heavenly joy. Let the truth shine upon my children unto eternity; the time has not yet come to see clearly." In the evening he was fetched in Boberman's car to the Hotel Europe, where a party was in full swing. The guests present were: Boberman, Kovarsky, the director of the International Bank, Count Tatishchev, Ensign Khvostov and two ladies. The watch did not observe Rasputin's departure.

14 January. Rasputin came home at seven o'clock in the morning, completely overcome with drink; Ossipenko, and an unknown man were with him. On his way upto his flat he broke a large pane of glass in the entrance door. The agents noticed a swelling on his nose, which is supposed to have been occasioned by a fall. In the afternoon he took Rubinstein and two ladies to Tsarskoe-Selo. On the homeward journey he entered into conversation with the agents: "One of you has told someone that I held a lady on my knees. That is unseemly talk. You are attached to me for purposes of protection, yet you report against me." Neustein, who lives on the same floor, remarked to the agents: "Your patron will soon be appointed to Tsarskoe-Selo to look after the holy lamps there."

16 January. Rasputin has given a letter to the prostitute Tregoubova. According to private information, supplied by one of the servants of the Pistolkors, Rasputin was seen performing strange rites and mumbling incomprehensible words over the two Pistolkors, whom he had made to kneel down before him.

17 January. An unknown lady paid Rasputin a call at midnight and stayed till three o'clock.

18 January. Rasputin returned home at half-past seven in the morning with two men and a lady; he was completely drunk and sang loudly in the streets. The unknown persons went away, after leaving Rasputin at his door... He spent the morning shouting and stamping about in his flat. Karavia and her daughter Maimeskul, who came to see Rasputin but who were not received by him, abused him on their way out calling him a "scurvy peasant," and telling the agents that on one occasion, when they were at the Villa Rode Restaurant they saw Rasputin running through the saloon, dressed only in his shirt, for which misdemeanour the restaurant was closed. They also said that a new monk had appeared at Tsarskoe-Selo, who would soon supplant Rasputin.

21 January. Rasputin and Haar went to 26 Pasochnaia Street to Knirsha. Late rhe was seen to leave the house alone and go to 36 Basseinaia Street, the residence of the Actress Orlova, Manouilov's mistress. Privately collected information stated that Manacevitch-Manouilov and the President of the Council of Ministers, B. Swriner,were also there.

22 January. Rasputin came home in the morning in the company of Ossipenko, an unknown man and two women. He was drunk.

23 January. A priest, whose name has not been ascertained, has presented Rasputin with some fish. The watch left Rasputin in the course of the evening at No. 6 Gagarinskaia Street, the residence of Secretary of State Feodor Borisovitch Nordmar [Senior Secretary in the Deartment of Awards].

24 January. Rasputin did not come home till five o'clock in the morning. At five in the afternoon he drove with Dobrovolskaia and Golovina to Our Saviour'schurch in Great Spasskaia Street, where the Metropolitan, Pitirim, was holding an all-night requiem service in memory of the deceased Archpresbyter and Abbot of this church, who had instituted public meetings on moral and spiritual questions.

26 January. Rasputin returned to his flat at four o'clock in the morning in the company of Ossipenko and an unknown man. At 11-49 at night Ossipenko arrived at the railway terminus in one of the cars belonging to the automobile squadron. Dobrovolsky joined him a little later. Having met the train by which Rasputin came from Tsarskoe-Selo, they drove to Dobrovolsky's flat. At five o'clock in the morning Rasputin returned home in a cab, accompanied by Dobrovolsky.

29 January. A petitioner by the name of Tatarinova told the agents that while Rasputin was interviewing her, he hugged and kissed some young lady who had also come to see him. This behaviour had so outraged her sense of decency that she refused to have anything more to do with him. Rasputin and Filippov went to the Restaurant Donon. Later in the evening they drove to the Alexandro-Nevsky Monastery, after having been joined by Ossipenko.

30 January. Rasputin returned home at 3-30 the following morning, slightly inebriated, in the company of a man, whose identity has not been established. The priest of the Moscow Liubianskaia church arrived in order to submit a petition on behalf of an unknown man, who had also come to see Rasputin. This man had every intention of paying Rasputin in advance (the bribe was apparently to be a large one), had the priest not dissuaded him from doing so, by assuring him that any advance payment might be inexpedient. The priest begged Rasputin to interview the Minister of Internal Affairs, Senator Belietzky, in order to insure his assistance, but Rasputin refused to comply with this request, considering a letter of recommendation to be sufficient. On his way out the priest was heard to laugh at Rasputin's illiterate writing.

In the evening Rasputin and Haar went to see Knirsha, No. 26, Pesochnaia Street, where a few ladies and gentlemen had assembled. The agents left him there at two o'clock. He was brought home at 4.30 by an unknown man.

1 February. The Moscow priest told agent Terekhov. in the course of a conversation, that the business on which he had come was hanging fire, as it had been give nover to Vyroubova, whose usual method of procedure was to act through the Court Commandant [General Voeikov], who was, unfortunately, away on active service. Rasputin complained to the agents that someone had been abusing him over the telephone, and that the exchange would not put him in touch with the offenders.

2 February. After being out all night, Rasputin came home at 9-30 in the morning. Dobrovolskaia was at his flat, playing the piano and singing. At one o'clock at night he left again in the direction of the Officerskaia Street, returning after an absence of two hours.

3 February. Rasputin came back from Tsarskoe-Selo, at eleven o'clock in the evening. At twelve he departed for an unknown destination; two hours later he was seen to return by car with two men, who, however did not go up to his flat.

5 February. Rasputin has been absent since yesterday evening. The cab-driver informed the agents that he had brought Rasputin home from the corner of the Officerskaia and Alexeievskaia Streets. Karavia, who had paid Rasputin a visit, said to the agents on leaving: "Although Rasputin is so depressed at times, he never the less does big business. For instance, Rubinstein has lately arranged an important deal to the amount of 300,000 roubles, and Rasputin has received from him a commission of 50,000 roubles." She added that Rasputin had promised her to approach the Minister Shakhovskoy in connection with her petition, since he was fonder of him than Vyroubova. At one o'clock at night Rasputin was observed leaving Ezersky's house in the company of Ossipenko and a few unknown men. He was followed to No. 15 Rogdestvenskaia Street, the residence of the Assistant Commissioner of Police, Moisey Shmouilovitch-Dvinov, who was celebrating his birthday. After staying there for twenty-five minutes, he left for an unknown destination, returning home at 3.30 in the morning.

7 February. Boberman came with a view to inquiring about Rasputin's health. On his way out he told the watch that Rasputin was well. Neustein, who lives inthe same house, had a conversation with the agents, in the course of which hesaid to them: "Is it true that some officer has given your charge a thrashing?" Vyroubova, who had arrived in a court automobile, dispatched Simanovitch on some errand. Knirsha stayed with Rasputin till past midnight. On coming out of the flat, he met two men, whose identity has not been established, and with them returned to Rasputin.

8 February. Rasputin, who was accompanied by two unknown officials, went by taxi to the Nicolaievsky Cavalry College and to the Polish Roman Catholic church on the Torgovaia Street. Knirsha seems to have presented him with several bottles of wine. At 8.15 in the evening Rasputin was visited by five women, who, according to the cab-driver, had come from the Officerskaia Street. The watch heard sinking, dancing and music. The guests left at three o'clock. No petitioners were received during the day.

 

(Signed). Chief of the Petrograd Okhrana, Major-General Globachev.
Director of External Surveillance, Kornilov.
Detailed unrevised reports of the external watch over Rasputin from the 8-10 February, 1916. 8 February, 1916. Reports.

"Tiomny" [a nickname for Rasputin, invented by the police agents], Gorokhovaia Street, No. 64

Knirsha left Tiomny at one o'clock at night. At that time two unknown men arrived and went up to the flat. Knirsha returned with them. They all departed at two o'clock. Solovieva called at ten o'clock in the morning; she was followed by Maria Golovina. They both left directly. At 11.50 Tatiana Shakhovskaia arrived, and stayed for fifty minutes. Simanovitch paid a call at ten o'clock, which lasted for ten minutes. Sandetzkaia, who came very shortly afterwards, also stayed for ten minutes. The chorister of the Athos Church Hall, Derevensky, who came shortly after noon, said that the scribe of the Alexander Nevsky Monastery had told him that last September when he was reading the newspaper Kopeika he saw an article on Varnava and Grisha (Rasputin). He further reported that the gatekeeper, who was listening to him, had asked: "When will there be a revolution?" To Derevensky's question what good a revolution would do, he is supposed to have answered: "It would dethrone the Romanovs and put an end to those two pernicious fellows Varnava and Grisha." The name of the door-keeper is not known. The scribe has since been ordained.

Laptiskaia left at 12.20. An official, wearing a military uniform, arrived ten minutes later; he presently emerged accompanied by Tiomny. Two volunteers were waiting for them in the courtyard to whom Tiomny said that he would see them later. Then he left with the official for an unknown destination.

According to the words of the chauffeur, they went to the Nicolaievsky Cavalry College and the Polish church on the Torgovaia. At 5.50 in the afternoon Tiomny returned with the official, who left him ten minutes later. Senator Mamontov came at 1-35 p.m.; he stayed for half an hour. Bazilevskaia and Haar paid Rasputina visit at 1.20 Simanovitch and a man of military rank came by car, registered No. 5064; this was their second visit. A lady, wife of an officer in the Izmailovsky regiment, came at 2.15; she lives in a government house on the lzmailovsky Prospect. At 3-40 Simanovitch appeared for the third time, and left after a stay of thirty minutes. Knirsha brought several bottles of wine. Tourovitch paid a long call. At five o'clock Tiomny received a visit from Chervinskaia and Solovieva; the former left in half-an-hour's time. Simanovitch came for the fourth time at 6.20 and stayed for an hour. He was followed by Reshetnikov, who remained with Tiomny for thirty-five minutes. Later an unknown lady called. Tourovitch paid Tiomny a second visit. Dobrovolskaia and Berman [widow of a merchant] came at nine and ten o'clock respectively. At ten Tourovitch brought her husband, and at eleven o'clock Knirsh aappeared for the second time.

Note. Five women, whose identity has not been established, arrived at 8.15. The cab-driver reported them to have come from the Officerskaia Street. At ten the guests were heard to sing, dance and play the piano. No petitioners were admitted to Tiomny although about twenty five had called.
(Signed) TEREKHOV, SVISTOUNOV.

9 February, 1916. Reports.

Tiomny, Gorokhovaia Street, 64

The guests, who had visited Tiomny last night, left at two o'clock. The entertainment was noisy. Vyroubova paid a call at 9-45 this morning. She was followed by Dobrovolskaia, who stayed for three hours. At 10.50 arrived Liubov and Maria Golovina; Haar also paid a long visit. Mamontov and Ossipenko came by government car No. 5064; they were accompanied by an unknown official, who stayed for half-an-hour. At midday Dobrovolsky made his appearance and stayed for an hour and a half. Varnava and Avgustin drove up in car No. 127. At 2.40 Tiomny came out of his flat on his way to the baths, where he remained for fifty minutes. While walking along, he said: "It is a pity that there has been so much talk; now there will be an inquiry." He further remarked: "They are thinking of assassinating me. If they find out that the letter was written by Iliodor [an intriguing monk] they certainly will. "Von Bock paid him a call at 4.45 in the afternoon; Maria Golovina reappeared atfive o'clock; she was followed by Moskvina, who stayed for an hour and ten minutes. Tourovitch came at 5-45 and left with Golovina at 6,45. Klionovsky paid a short visit. Simanovitch paid a call later in the evening, accompanied by an engineer, a Jew. "Tiomny" received no petitioners.

(Signed). TEREKHOV, SVISTOUNOV, VASSILY POPOV, GRIGORY IVANOV.

10 February, 1916. Reports.

Tiomny, Gorokhovaia Street, 64

Yesterday at midnight Tiomny received a visit from a man, who, judging by his appearance, was Manouilov; he did not stay long. Solovieva also paid him a short visit during the night. The wife of General Sokolov came at 10-30 in the morning. Her stay was brief. Pozdniakova brought an unknown lady, but was not received. Filippov came at eleven o'clock, accompanied by a lady, who remained in the vestibule. In ten minutes' time he reappeared with a card for the lady, who then went up to Tiomny. She came down with a letter of introduction to the Minister Belietzky. Maria Golovina and Nikitina [a lady-in-waiting] came in succession - neither stayed long. At 12.40 Haar came, who was accompanied by a lady, called Sophia Mikhailovna; they remained upstairs for an hour and a half. The wife of General Soloviev [Sokolov ?] paid another call together with an unknown lady. At two o'clock a taxi was ordered -its number was observed to be 224 - which Tiomny and Golovina left for an unknown destination; they returned at 3.45 in the same car. Laptinskaia left at three o'clock after an hour's stay. Dobrovolskaia went up to the flatat 3.20. Kisselev, who came at 4.40, was not received. Dobrovolsky appeared sometime later and remained for an hour. Towards the evening Maria Golovina, Laptinskaia and Dounia went out. Berman paid a call, which lasted half an hour. At eight o'clock Tiomny and Dobrovolsky left by cab; according to the coachman they had been out for a drive, without stopping anywhere. Maria Golovina, Laptinskaia and Dounia returned at 8.50 in the evening. Maria Golovina and Dobrovolskaia left at approximately ten o'clock. Fifteen visitors in all had called during the day. Neustein said to-day "All my friends are inquiring whether Tiomny is well there is a rumour that he has had a thrashing from a man called Orlov Denissov on account of some woman."

(Signed). TEREKHOV, SVISTOUNOV, VASSILY Popov and GRIGORY IVANOV.



The Romanovs were finally buried with the rest of their family in the Peter and Paul Fortress Cathedral along the Neva River in St. Petersburg










Considering Oswald Rayner's role in the death of Rasputin, killing 5,000,000 more Russians in an effort to keep Russia in WWI, which led to the overthrow of Nicholas II, to the massacre of his family and to the successful October Revolution of the Bolsheviks, to removing Alexander Kerensky and parliamentary government from power and starting the Russian Civil War which killed 10,000,000 more Russians, George V was horrifically wrong to refuse refuge to his cousin Nicholas II and his family.  Shame on him and the Windsors, formerly called the Germanic name, House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.